Dating historia

Drake was spotted in London with Decline singer, Raye following dating rumors earlier in 2018. It was reported that the hip-hop star took an interest in the singer’s songwriting skills and hung out with her quite a bit whilst working in the U.K. In fact, online dating is the second-most-common way for couples to meet–right behind meeting through friends. With 40 million Americans trying online dating services, it only becomes more normal every day. Below is a look at the history of online dating: </> Zellweger and Cooper started dating in 2009 after they met on the film Case 39 in 2006. The film was released in 2010. Though the couple kept their relationship private, Cooper told Entertainment ... After dating Diane Kruger for a decade, Jackson went on to marry Jodie Turner-Smith in 2019. The pair welcomed their first child together in 2020. The pair welcomed their first child together in 2020. LisaRaye McCoy, known as LisaRaye, is an American actress, model, businesswoman and fashion designer. McCoy is best known for portraying Diana “Diamond” Armstrong in the 1998 film The Players Club, Neesee James on the UPN/The CW sitcom All of Us from 2003 until 2007 and Keisha Greene in the VH1 romantic comedy series Single Ladies which originally aired from 2011-2014. Dating back to 17th century Wales, ornately carved spoons, known as lovespoons, were traditionally made from a single piece of wood by a suitor to show his affection to his loved one. The decorative carvings have various meanings — from an anchor meaning 'I desire to settle down' to an intricate vine meaning 'love grows.' Emhoff, Kamala Harris’s husband, is an entertainment attorney. He’s a partner with the firm DL Piper. His firm bio reads: Douglas Emhoff is a highly experienced litigator and strategic advisor. BLACKPINK's dating history 2020 reveals Jennie, Lisa, Rose and Jisoo's relationships and breakups despite YG Entertainment's dating ban. Rumors ahead. Dating events from an uncertain point is inaccurate because one is making an untrue statement based on a false assumption. By the time people began questioning how Dionysius arrived at the date of Jesus' birth, or whether he was correct, over 1000 years had passed and a great deal of history had been recorded. For the love of men! Jane Fonda fell in love on more than one occasion in her life, but when she hit her 80s, she decided to close up shop. “I’m not dating anymore, but I did up until a couple ...

The "Inferno" Ending- The Eldians are already Sterilized

2020.09.17 21:56 Spaghestis The "Inferno" Ending- The Eldians are already Sterilized

So basically I have another crack theory for the ending. This one is based off Dan Brown's book "Inferno". Basically in the book, the main characters and other groups of interest are trying to stop a virus from being released. The guy who's releasing the virus is this genius geneticist who realized that if human population keeps growing at our current rate we'll become to big to sustain ourselves in 100 years, so he decides to take matters into his own hands and create a virus which will cull the population. He makes a video where he shows the virus in a container of biodegradable plastic, and he displays a date on screen, saying that that will be the date the world changes.

So the main characters realize they have a week until the virus is released. They hunt down clues and are able to track down the location of the container of the virus. They find it a day before the date on the video- but it has already been released.

The main characters are in confusion, until one of them reveals that she has been working with the geneticist all along. She says that the date on the video is actually the "saturation" date of the virus- the date when everyone on Earth will be infected. She reveals that the virus had been released before they even saw the video. The virus doesn't make you sick, it actually changes your genetic makeup. It would infect everybody, but only 33% will "activate" the gene which makes you unable to have children. Since this change is genetic, this means that every generation, 33% of the population will be unable to have kids.

So this sounds really similar to Zeke's Euthanization plan, right? Sterilizing people to save the world?

Now, how do we know that the Eldians haven't been sterilized? In 122, Eren does stop Ymir from "reaching" the coordinate, but we have no idea if that is even a requirement for Ymir to activate her power. For all we know, she could've sterilized all Eldians the instant Zeke commanded her to, and then she just started walking back because her job was done and her duty was filled. Maybe Eren didn't stop Ymir from sterilizing Eldians, he just caught her on her way back home after she sterilized Eldians. Remember, she wasn't "freed" until after Zeke gave her the command.

This would be a pretty impactful twist ending. Imagine Eren is able to successfully complete the Rumbling. He comes home, and a year passes with Historia's baby being born. However, the Paradis people soon realize nobody is getting pregnant anymore. Eren realizes that Zeke's sterilization plan worked, and since Paradis is now the only place with humans, humanity is doomed to go extinct within a 100 years since no Paradisians can have kids. Historia's baby was the last human to be born, ever.

What do you think?
submitted by Spaghestis to titanfolk [link] [comments]


2020.09.17 17:54 Bond_em7 [Fantasy Fest 2020] JP Megathread (Fest)

This fest feels like it sort of snuck up. Maybe that's becasue we didn't know too much before the last livestream but it feels like fest sort of started without much fanfare. Anyway, this Megathread will be listing out all the events and other things going on during fest and I'll try my best to capture everything I see put up about it, including rewards for stuff if I can get them. I'll do another separate post for the banners and put a link here so if you're looking for what's on the banners the link is [here]() and I'll also link it below.
Anything I could find a solid date for I haven't added though I'm sure there will be some things like Gem draws. As I find dates or solid info I'll add it.
Thanks to Stylus_Index and onthefaultline for the translation work, dataminers like ElNinoFr (and other I'm sure), and S0litair3d as always for the posts on GameFaqs that allows me to do these and also thanks to Pyrotios for always checking my work and helping make sure these things are accurate.

Recent JP Megathreads

Dragonlord Bahamut (Event) Confounded Memories (X) Recalling the Blue Light (IX) The Enduring Transparent (VII) Confounded Memories (V) Bug Catching (Event) To Preserve Peace (XII) Faeries from the Future (VIII) Fat Black Chocobo: A Chilling Forgery Confounded Memories (XIII)

Glory Fest 2020

Megathread Relics

Helpful Links

General JP Version Information FFRK Community Database AASBs without En-Element and where to get it (RunAwayWojo)
Game Updates:
  • 6th Anniversary Report
  • Start Dash Login Bonus (7 September)
    • Only for players who have made their account from 7 September 2020
    • Day 1: 1 Realm/Elemental Relic Draw Ticket
    • Day 2: 100 Major Adamantites & Scarletites
    • Day 3: 100 Major Growth Eggs
    • Day 4: 10 Stamina Potions
    • Day 5: 50 Mythrils
    • Day 6: 500000 Gil
    • Day 7: 100 of each 3* Mote
    • Day 8: 50 of each 4* Mote
    • Day 9: 100 of each Major Orb
    • Day 10: 1 Realm/Elemental Relic Draw Ticket
  • Comeback Login Bonus (7 September)
    • Only for players who have not logged in for at least 60 days prior to 7 September 2020
    • Day 1: 1 Realm/Elemental Relic Draw Ticket
    • Day 2: 50 Major Arcanas
    • Day 3: 500000 Gil
    • Day 4: 50 of each 4* Mote
    • Day 5: 100 of each Major Orb
    • Day 6: 10 Mythrils
    • Day 7: 100 Major Growth Eggs
    • Day 8: 50 of each 5* Mote
    • Day 9: 30 of each Crystal
    • Day 10: 1 Realm/Elemental Relic Draw Ticket
  • Historia Soul 4 (11 September)
    • Added to the First Time Completion rewards in all Phantasm Dungeons
    • This item allows you to cap break your Historia Crystal level from 99 to 120
  • Wait Mode (11 September)
    • Wait Mode will pause the battle whenever a character's ATB is filled, until an action is chosen
    • Battle Speed in this mode is unique to the ones in ATB Mode and cannot be changed
    • Go to the Settings to activate this mode and a toggle button (identical to Auto) will appear in battle
  • Straight to Battle (11 September)
    • Usable only in Daily, Story & Event Dungeons
    • This function allows you to skip the Party & RW selection screen and goes straight to the battle
    • Inside Settings you can also determine if you want Auto to be on when you use this function
  • Dragonlord Dungeon
    • FFI, FFV & FFIX on 11th September
    • FFVII & FFX on 18th September
    • FFIV on 30th September
    • Next tier of Cardia Dungeon
    • Master at least 1 Phantasm Dungeon to unlock it
    • Master clear each dungeon to earn a Light Armor Artifact (56 ATK/MAG, 217 DEF/RES, 16 MND) & 4 Record Board nodes for characters in that realm
    • Bahamut has Apex Savage Mode, where you need to deal multiple 20000+ attacks to remove
    • It also has a Historia Soul mechanic where you have to spend SB/LB gauges to remove them
  • Wandering Gilgamesh (26 September)
    • FFII & FFIV D550 difficulty will be added

Fantasy Fest 2020

Schedule as follows:
  • 02/09 ~ 05/10: Series Happy Relic Draws (RoP/LoTR)
  • 03/09 ~ 02/10: Transcendent Ruins
  • 09/09 ~ 05/09: 1/2 DU Stamina
  • 09/09 ~ 19/09: Fantasy Festival/Orbfest
  • 15/09: 6th Anniversary Countdown Login Bonus
  • 16/09: Fest Countdown Lucky #1 (Glint/Glint+/LMLBG)
  • 17/09: Fest Countdown Lucky #2 (UOSB/LBO)
  • 18/09: Fest Countdown Lucky #3 (AASB)
  • 18/09 ~ 09/10: Double Gyshal Greens
  • 18/09 ~ 09/10: Daily Twitter Stamina Refresh
  • 18/09: 6th Anniversary Login Bonus
  • 18/09: Forgotten Heroes
  • 18/09: 6th Anniversary Gift Dungeon
  • 18/09: 6th Anniversary Pick Up Relic Draw
  • 18/09: Ultra Abundant Relic Draw
  • 18/09: 6th Anniversary Relic Draw
  • 19/09: Fantasy Fest Banner 1
  • 19/09 ~ 25/09: 6th Anniversary Andapp Step Up Campaign
  • 20/09: Damage Contest
  • 21/09: Strolling Testudine
  • 22/09: Fantasy Fest Banner 2
  • 25/09: 6th Anniversary Special Login Bonus
  • 25/09: Fantasy Fest Banner 3
  • 25/09: 6th Anniversary Present Relic Draw
  • 25/09: 6th Anniversary Fortune Bag Relic Draw
  • 28/09: Fantasy Fest Banner 4
  • 01/10: Fantasy Fest Banner 4
  • ?: Fantasy Fest Dream Selection (Not Yet Confirmed)
Series Happy Relic Draws (RoP/LoTR) (2 Sep-10 Oct)
  • 17 banners total (one for each realm).
  • One-time draw only. Each draw costs 5 Mythrils or 291 Gems.
  • This is a triple pull that guarantees you at least one 5*+.
  • Relic pool contains all BSB+ & LMRs in the game for the respective realms.
Trancendent Ruins (?)
  • All previous Transcendent bosses will return.
Fantasy Festival (Sep 9)
  • Orbfest.
  • 5 tickets per day over 10 days.
  • Earn Festival Coins from the stage to exchange for various rewards.
6th Anniversary Countdown Login Bonus (Sep 15)
  • Day 1: 1 Realm/Elemental Relic Draw Ticket
  • Day 2: 5 Hero Souls & MCI Lodes
  • Day 3: 5 MCII & MCIII Lodes
  • Day 4: 1 Realm/Elemental Relic Draw Ticket
  • Day 5: 50 Major Growth Eggs
  • Day 6: 80 of each 3* Mote
  • Day 7: 50 of each 4* Mote
Fest Countdown Luckies (Sep 16,17,18)
  • One lucky banner a day for 3 days, each half-priced for the first 11-pull.
  • LMGlint/Glint+/LBG
  • UOSB/LBO
  • AASB
6th Anniversary Login Bonus (Sep 18)
  • Day 1: 1 6th Anniversary Relic Draw Ticket
  • Day 2: 10 Mythrils
  • Day 3: 1 6th Anniversary Relic Draw Ticket
  • Day 4: 50 Major Adamantites & Scarletites
  • Day 5: 1 6th Anniversary Relic Draw Ticket
  • Day 6: 20 of each Major Orb
  • Day 7: 1 6th Anniversary Relic Draw Ticket
  • Day 8: 5 Major Arcanas
  • Day 9: 1 6th Anniversary Relic Draw Ticket
  • Day 10: 15 of each 5* Mote
Forgotten Heroes (Sep 18)
  • Boss event of this fest.
  • Bringing a full realm party in some stages will give you a surprise.
Gift Dungeon (Sep 18)
  • 14 dungeons in total.
  • Rewards include Major Orbs, Crystals 6* Motes, and Anima Lenses.
  • Dungeon on 18 Sep will include 30 Mythrils.
6th Anniversary Pick Up Relic Draw (Sep 18)
  • Regular full priced banner, contents will be revealed on a later date.
  • Pull twice to get a free AASB pick.
Ultra Abundant Relic Draw (Sep 18)
  • Full priced banner, can only be pulled once.
  • Guarantees 11x USB.
6th Anniversary Relic Draw (18 September)
  • Can only be pulled with a Relic Draw ticket, which can be obtained from login bonus
  • 10 tickets in total, each provides a 10-pull with guaranteed 1x 5*+
6th Anniversary Festival (Sep 19/22/25/28, Oct 1).
  • 5 banners in total, arriving on 19/22/25/28 September & 1 October.
  • Featuring new TASB & SASBs.
  • Link to banner info is []().
6th Anniversary Andapp Step Up Campaign (Sep 19)
  • From 19th to 25th September, purchasing Gems through Andapp only can earn you extra Andapp points
  • Buy at least 10000 Gems to earn 500 points (~440 Gems).
  • Buy at least 30000 Gems to earn 3000 points (3000 Gems).
  • Buy at least 50000 Gems to earn 7000 points (~6908 Gems).
Damage Contest (Sep 20)
  • Fight against Fat Moogle and see how much damage you can deal within a period of time.
  • Grade rewards will be provided based on how well you did.
  • There will be a leaderboard for this event.
Strolling Testudine (Sep 21)
  • Transcedent event of this fest, boss is Long Gui (XIII).
6th Anniversary Special Login Bonus (Sep 25)
  • Day 1: 30 Mythrils
  • Day 2: 1 6th Anniversary Relic Draw Ticket
  • Day 3: 50 Major Adamantites & Scarletites
  • Day 4: 1 6th Anniversary Relic Draw Ticket
  • Day 5: 10 of each Crystal
  • Day 6: 1 6th Anniversary Relic Draw Ticket
  • Day 7: 5 Major Arcanas
  • Day 8: 1 6th Anniversary Relic Draw Ticket
  • Day 9: 50 of each 6* Mote
  • Day 10: 1 6th Anniversary Relic Draw Ticket
6th Anniversary Present Relic Draw (Sep 25)
  • Can only be pulled once for free.
  • After pulling you can choose one AASB+UOSB+LMR set.
  • There are 17 realm sets to choose from.
  • Once we have the sets I will update and list them here.
6th Anniversary Fortune Bag Relic Draw (Sep 25)
  • Gems only
  • Matsu Bag costs 8730 Gems, giving you a 33-pull with guaranteed 3x 5*+, 1 SASB pick, 1 CSB pick & 2 random LBO/AASB
  • Take Bag costs 5820 Gems, giving you a 22-pull with guaranteed 2x 5*+, 1 random SASB, 1 CSB pick & 1 LBO/AASB pick
Glory Fest Dream Selection (Not Yet Confirmed)
If you spot any mistakes or have suggestions on how to improve the quality of my guides, feel free to comment here and I'll do my best to address them ASAP!
submitted by Bond_em7 to FFRecordKeeper [link] [comments]


2020.09.16 05:20 StevenStevens43 Evidence of pre-roman invasion of Loegria

Evidence of pre-roman invasion of Loegria
Loegria:
As has already been established in previous articles, Loegria pertains to the Southern land of britain, below the river Humber, and the natural border between Southern Britain, and Northern britain, divided by rivers and streams which connect the Irish sea, to the North sea.
This was the natural border of Britain, before invasions.
And if you go to google maps, you will find out yourself that it is "true" that there is indeed a slight divide between the two municipalities, in the form of rivers, and even narrow streams.
Albanactus
Albanactus, according to Geoffrey of Monmouth, was the founding king of Albania or Albany. He is in effect Geoffrey's eponym for Scotland.[1] His territory was that north of the River Humber.[2]
Invasions:
Now we know there has been many invasions of Britain.
1st, the Roman invasion, which resulted in Hadrians wall and Antonine wall.
2nd, Anglos-saxon invasion.
3rd, Viking invasion.
4th, Norman invasion.
However, i don't think the Roman invasion was actually the first invasion.
I think there is evidence, even in legends, of a noticable and serious invasion of Southern lands in Britain.
I will now proceed to attempt to highlight why, i think this is at least, a possibility.
Bladud:
Now, quite simply, to see for yourself, just how inconsistant the biography of Bladud is, with the life and times of all the other legendary kings of Britain, and the fascinating fair comparison to known contemporary history, simply read some of the other articles on my page, and then read this one.
Now, i am going to add my own description in my own words.
"Bladud is a legendary king of the Britons that does not know what century it is".
Bladud
Bladud or Blaiddyd[a] is a legendary king of the Britons), although there is no historical evidence for his existence. He is first mentioned in Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniae (c. 1136), which describes him as the son of King Rud Hud Hudibras, and the tenth ruler in line from the first king, Brutus, saying Bladud was contemporaneous with the biblical prophet Elijah (9th century BC).
Link for photo
Bladud
School of liberal arts in Athens:
Now, this might not look too unbelievable at first.
My previous articles do point to "huge" Aryan influence in the Greek world.
However, it is just that, it is totally out of the blue in comparison to all the other legendary kings of Britain and Ireland.
He is "the first" to ever be sent over to Athens for schooling.
But ok, maybe that is believable.
After-all, the world is evolving.
Legend
Bladud was sent by his father to be educated in the liberal arts in Athens. After his father's death,
Link for photo.jpg)
Athens
Stamford university:
Apparently, after his fathers death he returned from schooling in Athens, and founded Stamford university in Lincolnshire.
Sorry, but there is absolutely nothing to suggest that Stamford university was founded in Lincolnshire.
This must be the most outlandish claim ever made, in either contemporary history, mythology, or legends.
And, it might be a little bit more believable, if it were consistant with all the other legends, and their accuracy.
Even the most outlandish legend, at first glance, can have somekind of Euhemeric value, if you are able to find the missing pieces.
And i do see euhemeric value in this story, actually, i see it as a sign Loegria was invaded.
Legend
After his father's death, he returned with four philosophers, and founded a university at Stamford in Lincolnshire
Link for photo
Stamford university
University:
Now, "i will" defend the blooded Bladud here.
A university meaning of a community of teachers and scholars is only the modern definition.
University
The word university is derived from the Latin universitas magistrorum et scholarium, which roughly means "community of teachers and scholars".[1]
Link for photo
Oxford
A group:
However the ancient terminology of university, could be defined as not much more than the formation of anykind of group, containing a few individuals.
Not necessarily even exclusively an educational group.
Definition
The original Latin word universitas refers in general to "a number of persons associated into one body, a society, company, community, guild, corporation, etc".[3]
St Augustine:
Now, apparently this university flourished until it was suppressed by Saint Augustine of Canterbury.
Legend
he returned with four philosophers, and founded a university at Stamford in Lincolnshire, which flourished until it was suppressed by Saint Augustine of Canterbury on account of heresies which were taught there.
Link for photo
Saint Augustines expansion
Died 604 AD:
What kind of gibberish is this? Saint Augustine of Canterbury is from 600's AD!
Is this pseudo history of Britain from foreign invaders speaking pigeon Gaelic? Even if this "is" pseudo-history, it is "very very poor", Pseudo-history?
Augustine of Canterbury
Augustine of Canterbury (born first third of the 6th century – died probably 26 May 604) was a Benedictine monk who became the first Archbishop of Canterbury in the year 597. He is considered the "Apostle to the English" and a founder of the English Church.[3]
Link for photo
Augustines grave
Papyrus:
Now, i am looking for elements of truth to take from this riddle.
I am beginning to suspect that persons pushing the Papyrus on British shores, may have pre-dated Julius Caesar.
History
Papyrus was first manufactured in Egypt as far back as the fourth millennium BCE.[3][4][5] The earliest archaeological evidence of papyrus was excavated in 2012 and 2013 at Wadi al-Jarf, an ancient Egyptian harbor located on the Red Sea coast. These documents, the Diary of Merer, date from c. 2560–2550 BCE (end of the reign of Khufu).[4] The papyrus rolls describe the last years of building the Great Pyramid of Giza.[6] In the first centuries BCE and CE, papyrus scrolls) gained a rival as a writing surface in the form of parchment, which was prepared from animal skins.[7] Sheets of parchment were folded to form quires from which book-form codices were fashioned. Early Christian writers soon adopted the codex form, and in the Græco-Roman world, it became common to cut sheets from papyrus rolls to form codices.
Link for photo
Papyrus scholar
863 BC or 500 BC:
Now, it just gets worse.
This is simply an incoherent ramble.
863 BC, or, 500 BC?
Legend
Supposedly he ruled for twenty years from 863 BC or perhaps 500 BC
Hot springs out of magic:
No, sorry, until now the legends have been extremely intelligent, and reliable, and the sudden belief in "magic", combined with the psuedo intellectual claims mixed with the inability to even get the date correct within a 363 year gap, is inconsistant, and out of place, with the nature of the other legends.
Legend
in which time he built Kaerbadum or Caervaddon (Bath), creating the hot springs) there by the use of magic.
Link for photo
Bath coat of Arms
Caervaddon:
Now, there is "an interesting" claim here.
A little more consistant with legends up until now.
Apparently Bladud founded Caervaddon (Bath).
Legend
in which time he built Kaerbadum or Caervaddon (Bath), creating the hot springs) there by the use of magic.
Link for photo
Map of Bath
Very believable:
Now, the fact he founded a settlement here is "extremely" believable.
There has been activity in the location since the Mesolithic period, all the way through the Bronze age, in to the Iron age, and the Beaker culture even pre-dates the period of Bladud.
Iron age and Roman
The hills in the locality such as Bathampton Down saw human activity from the Mesolithic period.[3][4] Several Bronze Age round barrows were opened by John Skinner) in the 18th century.[5] Solsbury Hill overlooking the current city was an Iron Age hill fort and the adjacent Bathampton Camp may also have been one.[6][7] A long barrow site believed to be from the Beaker people was flattened to make way for RAF Charmy Down.[8][9]
Archaeological evidence shows that the site of the Roman baths') main spring may have been treated as a shrine by the Britons,[10][11] and was dedicated to the goddess Sulis, whom the Romans identified with Minerva;
Link for photo
Minerva
He what????:
He dedicated the city to the Goddess Athena or Minerva!
What language is he speaking? Minerva is a Greco-Roman God.
No other king in Ireland nor Britain, during this period, is pretending to be a scholarly papyrus, whilst enchanting incoherent rambles, in goodness knows what language.
And what is with all this sudden poetic nonsense? "whose flames turned to balls of stone as they grew low, with new ones springing up in their stead:".
Legend
He dedicated the city to the goddess Athena or Minerva, and in honour of her, lit undying fires, whose flames turned to balls of stone as they grew low, with new ones springing up in their stead: an embellishment of an account from the fourth-century writer Solinus of the use of local coal on the altars of her temple.[5]
He flew off the temple of Apollo in London: What????:
Necromancy? divination? temple of Apollo in London?
Since when?
Pushed off a caer castle maybe!!
Divination, wings and death
The tale claims that he also encouraged the practice of necromancy, or divination through the spirits of the dead. Through this practice, he is said to have constructed wings for himself and to have tried to fly to (or from) the temple of Apollo in Trinovantum (London) or Troja Nova (New Troy), but to have been killed when he hit a wall, or to have fallen and been dashed to pieces or broken his neck. He was supposedly buried at New Troy and succeeded by his son, Leir.
Link for photo
The temple of.... \"Apollo\"
Latin league overthrow:
Now, i cannot go in to too much detail unfortunately, as i have already covered this in previous articles, and i am now running out of space.
But basically, the Latin league have just been overthrown by Messenian Romans.
Roman leadership of the league
During the reign of Tarquinius Superbus, the Latins were persuaded to acknowledge the leadership of Rome. The treaty with Rome was renewed, and it was agreed that the troops of the Latins would attend on an appointed day to form a united military force with the troops of Rome. That was done, and Tarquin formed combined units of Roman and Latin troops.[4]
France:
Messian Romans have also invaded France, from the Medes.
Greek colonies
In 600 BC, Ionian Greeks from Phocaea founded the colony of Massalia (present-day Marseille) on the shores of the Mediterranean Sea, making it the oldest city of France.[4][5] At the same time, some Celtic tribes penetrated the eastern parts (Germania superior) of the current territory of France, but this occupation spread in the rest of France only between the 5th and 3rd century BC.[6]
Spain:
During the exact same period, Celts are being pushed out of Iberia/Spain by Greco-Romans.
History of Iberian peninsula
The Greeks are responsible for the name Iberia, apparently after the river Iber (Ebro). In the 6th century BC, the Carthaginians arrived in Iberia, struggling first with the Greeks, and shortly after, with the newly arriving Romans for control of the Western Mediterranean. Their most important colony was Carthago Nova (Latin name of modern-day Cartagena).[7]
War:
Now, i am not saying that the Romans actually conquered Britain as early as 600 BC.
But the war has definitely began, and the effects of this are quite evident even in Loegrian legends were their kings are suddenly speaking Greco-Roman, worshipping Roman gods, getting schooled in enemy territory, flying off temples, worshipping foreign gods, getting made a fool of, and they "suddenly" do not even know their own coherent pseudo history, and the image of Indigenous Loegrians flying off Temples appears quite comical to them,, whilst all the other Celtic legends still attribute their kings to be fighting over territory, building castles, and settlements beginning with Caer, et cetera.
Saxons:
Now, here is where it gets "worse".
Do you remember other articles when i cover the period when the Saxons were kicked out of Southern scandinavia in to German territory, and Greenshield had to go over and help fight them?
Well, during the sack of Rome in in 387 BC, when Brennius, the King of Albany, allied with Gauls and Scandinavians, pushed the Romans out of Gaul, found themselves up against a "surprise foe".
The saxons have only went and allied themselves with the Romans!
And they attacked Brenniuses army!
Conqueror of Rome
Following their unification, Belinus and Brennius merged their armies into one great one and invaded Gaul. After a year of warfare, the joint army managed to subject all the Frankish kingdoms in Gaul to their authority. Now with an even greater army, Belinus lead his great army to Italy and threatened to invade Rome. Outside Rome, the two consuls, Gabias and Porsenna, sued for peace and offered wealth, tribute, and hostages as a sign of their submission. Belinus and Brennius accepted and took their great army to Germany. Soon after this movement north, Rome broke the treaty and marched north, and Brennius went to fight the Romans while Belinus remained at war with the Germans (who were being helped by various other Italian troops).
Temple of concord:
And it would have been the temple of concord, according to more reliable legendary accounts.
But even the Temple of Concord is Roman.
Legend
He reigned in peace and prosperity for forty years then died and was buried in the Temple of Concord, a tribute to his laws, which resided in Trinovantum. His death sparked another civil war between his two sons, Belinus and Brennius.
submitted by StevenStevens43 to AhrensburgCulture [link] [comments]


2020.09.13 21:09 StevenStevens43 Learn Albannach. Learn your history

Learn Albannach. Learn your history
Albion:
According to legend, Brutus became the first King of Britain in the year 1112 BC, and he settles in a city on the banks of the River Thames which would later become known as Trinovantum, and even later, London.
Historia regum britannia
Brutus then founds a city on the banks of the River Thames, which he calls Troia Nova, or New Troy. The name is in time corrupted to Trinovantum, and the city is later called London.[13] He creates laws for his people and rules for twenty-four years. After his death he is buried in Trinovantum, and the island is divided between his three sons: Locrinus (England), Albanactus (Scotland) and Kamber (Wales).
Link for photo
Albania flag
Albion:
Now, you may wonder why i am waving the Albanian flag, to depict the Island of Britain. Should i not be waving the Union jack?
Well no, because at it's roots, the island of Britain was originally named Albion, which derives from the etymological Gaelic root word "Albio", and Albania, derives from the exact same root word.
You see, when the Greeks Latinised the word to Albion, and we think this means that the name Albion, comes from the Greeks, and therefore that means the belief that there is no earlier reference available for the island of Britain being referred to as Albion, and thus everything before this Greek attestation must be purely mythological, is completely wrong, and misunderstanding the evolution of language.
Quite simply, the Greeks got the the word Albion, from the already existing Gaelic word, "Albio".
All the Greeks done was Latinise the word, to better suit their dialect, and writing system.
Simple as that.
Etymology
The oldest attestation of the toponym comes from the Greek language (Ἀλβίων)[6] and Latinised as Albiōn (genitive Albionis), derives from the Proto-Celtic nasal stem \Albi̯iū* (oblique \Albiion-) and survived in Old Irish as *Albu (genitive Albann). The name originally referred to Britain as a whole, but was later restricted to Caledonia (giving the modern Scottish Gaelic name for Scotland, Alba). The root *albiio- is also found in Gaulish and Galatian albio- ("world") and Welsh elfydd (elbid, "earth, world, land, country, district"). It may be related to other European and Mediterranean toponyms such as Alpes, Albania
Link for photo
Albio
The Alan family:
Now, take a moment to go and read my article on the Alan family, and you might find out just how influential and widespread the royal family were.
At a stretch, the Alans may have even sat on the Egyptian throne for a short period around the 500's BC.
Now, in the legends of Brutus of Troy, Brutus even claims to be an "Alan".
What actually appears to be happening here, is that Albio' and his sons, Locrinus, Albanactus, and Kamber, are being Latinised to, Brutus, Francus, Alamanus and Romanus.
The Romans are simply re-writing Albino history in to their own language, and this is leading to confusion.
Historia Britonnum
Yet another Brutus, son of Hisicion, son of Alanus the first European, also traced back across many generations to Japheth, is referred to in the Historia Brittonum. This Brutus's brothers were Francus, Alamanus and Romanus, also ancestors of significant European nations.[10]
Japheth:
Now, according to the Romans, Brutus was descended from Japeth.
But in actual fact, this is inaccurate.
Albio, was actually the grandson, of Aeneas.
Historia Britonnum
[1] A more detailed story, set before the foundation of Rome, follows, in which Brutus is the grandson or great grandson of Aeneas
Alba longa:
In reality, Albios bloodline, and name, would be more consistant with the terms Alba, and Aeneas, which would simply have been a Gaelic dialectual deviant of the word Alanus, prior to the Messenian Roman invasion in the 600's BC, when Alba-Longa became Rome, and Albio became Brutus.
Alba longa
Alba Longa (occasionally written Albalonga in Italian sources) was an ancient Latin) city in Central Italy, 12 miles (19 km) southeast of Rome, in the Alban Hills. Founder and head of the Latin League, it was destroyed by the Roman Kingdom around the middle of the 7th century BC, and its inhabitants were forced to settle in Rome. In legend, Romulus and Remus, founders of Rome, had come from the royal dynasty of Alba Longa, which in Virgil's Aeneid had been the bloodline of Aeneas,
Link for photo
Alba longa
Cambria:
Now, according to legend, "Albio" gave Cambria/Cymru (Wales) to his son Camber.
Camber)
Camber, also Kamber, was the legendary first king of Cambria, according to the Geoffrey of Monmouth in the first part of his influential 12th-century pseudohistory Historia Regum Britanniae. According to Geoffrey, Cambria, the classical name for Wales, was named for him.
Link for photo.svg)
Cambria
Cimmerians:
Now, what evidence do we have for a Gaelic root word for Wales pre-dating any Roman attestations?
Well, we have Cimmerians out fighting a war in the near east around 1000 BC.
And likely led by an Alan.
Coincidentally their red dot distribution leads directly to Alba longa.
Cimmerians
The Cimmerians (also Kimmerians; Greek: Κιμμέριοι, Kimmérioi) were a nomadic Indo-European people, who appeared about 1000 BC[1] and are mentioned later in 8th century BC in Assyrian records. While the Cimmerians were often described by contemporaries as culturally "Scythian", they evidently differed ethnically from the Scythians proper, who also displaced and replaced the Cimmerians.[2]
Link for photo
Cimmerian distribution
Welsh:
Now, the scholarly understanding that the word Cimmerian, is in fact Brythonic, is now quite contemporary.
It is also very likely that this particular Brythonic dialect relates more to the Welsh branch.
Legacy
The etymology of Cymro "Welshman" (plural: Cymry), connected to the Cimmerians by 17th-century Celticists, is now accepted by Celtic linguists as being derived from a Brythonic word *kom-brogos, meaning "compatriot".[21]
Albannach:
However, again, confusion sets in here, as Brythonic is actually Latinised.
In actual fact, the language was "not" Brythonic, it was "Albannach".
And as we have already established, either on this article, or previous, Alba once pertained to the entire Island of Albion, which we now call Britain, after the Roman invasion and the erection of Hadrians wall, when Alba got pushed North, to be replaced by this "Br".
Albannach)
Albannach, Scottish Gaelic for "Scottish,"
Link for photo#/media/File:Albannach_live.JPG)
Albannach
Albanactus:
And, this brings me to Albanactus.
The supposed youngest son of "Albio".
Albanactus supposedly inherited from Albio, the land North of the Humber, which they named Albany.
In addition to this, you will also find that Humber is the river that flows between the North sea, and Irish sea, and even today, the land North of the Humber, and South of the Humber, is pretty much 100% disconnected by rivers and streams.
To find out what the old border between England and Scotland was, simply click on the link i provide, zoom in, and follow the water.
There are however hundreds of streams.
Do you remember that game "maze" when you get a pencil and try to find your way out? Well, you can do this on google maps, and find the stream that connects the irish sea to the North sea in Yorkshire.
Once you have found it.
Please then go to the Severn river, and find out the old border between Loegria and Camber, by finding the Stream which connects the severn, to the Irish sea.
Albanactus
Albanactus, according to Geoffrey of Monmouth, was the founding king of Albania or Albany. He is in effect Geoffrey's eponym for Scotland.[1] His territory was that north of the River Humber.[2]
Link for google maps
Now, what evidence do we have for ancient Albanians?
Well, we have the Scoloti, who were led by the Alans, and united themselves with the Cimmerians, in Scythia, whilst out in the near east.
Scythians
.[10][13] Based in what is modern-day Ukraine and southern Russia, the Scythians called themselves Scoloti and were led by a nomadic warrior aristocracy known as the Royal Scythians.
In the 7th century BC, the Scythians crossed the Caucasus and frequently raided the Middle East along with the Cimmerians, playing an important role in the political developments of the region.[10][
Link for photo
Alba flag
Locrinus:
Now, Locrinus was another son of Albio, and was given the land of Loegria (England).
However, a little lie is told here.
In actual fact, the land he was awarded, was nothing like the equivalent of todays "England".
He was awarded the land south of East riding of Yorkshire, and the Lake district.
Locrinus
Locrinus was a legendary king of the Britons), as recounted by Geoffrey of Monmouth. He was the oldest son of Brutus and a descendant of the Trojans through Aeneas. Following Brutus's death, Britain was divided amongst the three sons, with Locrinus receiving the portion roughly equivalent to England,
Link for photo
English flag
Isle of Cornwall:
Now, if you go google maps, you will find that Cornwall, is actually 100% seperated from British mainland, by rivers and streams, running between River Fowey, flowing out in to the Channel, and the River Gannel, flowing out in to the Irish sea.
Google maps
Queen Gwendolen:
Now this explains why Queen Gwendolen found herself fighting Loegria, from this tiny little Isle she was patronised with.
Queen Gwendolen, also known as Gwendolin, or Gwendolyn (Latin: Guendoloēna) was a legendary ruler of ancient Britain. She is said to have been queen during the 11th century BC.
As told by Geoffrey of Monmouth in his pseudohistorical account Historia Regum Britanniae, she was the repudiated queen of King Locrinus until she defeated her husband in battle at the River Stour. This river was the dividing line between Cornwall and Loegria, two key locations in ancient Britain. After defeating the king, she took on the leadership of the Britons, becoming their first queen regnant.
Link for photo
Flag of cornwall
Corineus:
Now, Albio awarded Corineus with the land of Cornwall.
Though, Corineus was not one of his relations.
It would appear Corineus was getting palmed off.
Corineus
Corineus, in medieval British legend, was a prodigious warrior, a fighter of giants, and the eponymous founder of Cornwall.
Link for photo
Corineus
Doggerland:
So what does it all mean?
Well, it probably means that in actual fact, the Scottish, English, Welsh, divide actually pre-dates Hadrians wall and Offas dyke, and actually has boundaries drawn from nature, and the Island of Albion has always been inhabited by peoples that agree they share the same island, but remain slightly autonomous, due to slight natural differences.
It also means that it is likely that the Roman-Brit, pre-dates the half cast Romano-Brit left by the Romans in the southern lands, and actually the Southern lands from the Humber down, were always quite highly influenced by a Romano-Brit, that was probably more of a Messian-Albino, back then.
At least before an Alan invasion of Aryans from Scandinavian descent in around 1112 BC, when Messian-Albinos likely got pushed to cornwall.
This would be due to the fact that Britain used to be connected with Eurasia, before doggerland sank in 6,500 BC, and therefore, before a "White" invasion, Britain would have probably been a little more Eaurasian.
Doggerland
Doggerland was an area of land, now submerged beneath the southern North Sea, that connected Britain to continental Europe. It was flooded by rising sea levels around 6500–6200 BC.
Link for photo
Doggerland
White:
And, like it or not, the word "Albion", does mean white.
Which would strongly suggest that the Alans were "White".
Etymology
the Proto-Indo-European root \albho-*, meaning "white" (cf. Ancient Greek ἀλφός, Latin albus ).
Alba Albania:
I will bring this article now, to a close, by reminding everyone about the Alba Albanian flag

Alba Albanian flag
submitted by StevenStevens43 to AhrensburgCulture [link] [comments]


2020.09.13 02:00 Glossy_Gamer1 Paradise Island Realism! (Server Advertisement)

Paradise Island Realism! (Server Advertisement)
Server Name: Paradise Island Realism Summary: Paradise Island is a community-driven group of realism servers created by dinosaur lovers from across the globe. We have adventures for you to complete for points that can be used for in-game benefits and gifts. We hold "Pathfinding Sessions" that can be used as a way to learn our unique profiles. Outside of gaming, we have an amazing community of players and lore that our server is based on! (Release of this lore in it's entirety will be announced at a later date.) We have: - Pathfinding Sessions: These are events hosted by our staff team that help your learn each profile and meet new friends to play on our server (or others) with! - Unique Profiles: Like other servers, we do have profiles based off of real-life animals. Except, each profile has a small twist. - Adventures: PIR has a point system that allows players to earn points for doing certain tasks. These points can be used to purchase in-game perks. - Territories: Each carnivore can claim a territory and will push out certain carnivores depending on their profile. - Aggression Keys: Each profile has a certain aggression that affects how it acts in the face of danger. - Activity Hours: All dinosaurs have a certain time that they are the most active. Daytime, nighttime and some are both. This affects carnivore's hunting habits and creates a realistic atmosphere to hunt in as it could be dead silent during the night...until a carnivore ambushes from the shadows and attacks. Founder: u/Glossy_Gamer1 Server Limit: 30 (Can be increased as our players grow.) Server Playstyle: Lifecycle/Realism Server Map: Ancestrial Plains (We will return to Rival Shores once we have lots of players.) Current Servers: - Beasts of Bermuda Future Servers: - Path of Titans The Isle Historia and others Discord Link: https://discord.gg/hkBEHZW (Our other discords will be opened to the public when the game servers are up. We decided to not have a combined discord as it would create too many chats and the points our players earn would become mixed.)
https://preview.redd.it/0r2jtaxc2tm51.png?width=2000&format=png&auto=webp&s=dbd6e025270528b9727c7ec1be35fb9da0e43fc5
Come join the fun in Paradise! We hope to see you soon!
submitted by Glossy_Gamer1 to BeastsofBermuda [link] [comments]


2020.09.12 02:44 StevenStevens43 Joan of Arc I

Joan of Arc I
Brutus of Troy:
According to Celtic mythology, Brutus of Troy was the first king of Britain in 1112 BC.
Brutus of Troy
Brutus, or Brute of Troy, is a legendary descendant of the Trojan hero Aeneas, known in medieval British history as the eponymous founder and first king of Britain.
Link for photo
Brutus
Aeneas Silvius:
Brutus is supposed to be the Brother of Aeneas Silvius..
Historia
.[1] A more detailed story, set before the foundation of Rome, follows, in which Brutus is the grandson or great grandson of Aeneas
Link for photo.jpg)
Aeneas Silvius
Alba longa:
And they are both considered to be descended from the first king of Alba longa.
Aeneas Silvias
Aeneas Silvius (said to have reigned 1110-1079 BC)[1] is the son of Silvius), in some versions grandson of Ascanius and great-grandson, grandson or son of Aeneas. He is the third in the list of the mythical kings of Alba Longa in Latium, and the Silvii regarded him as the founder of their house.[2]
Link for photo
Alba longa
Latin league:
Now, Alba longa, is, in actual fact, quite factually an early aristocratic location, approximately 12 miles from modern day Rome, that was subjugated by the early Romans in the 7th Century, and as we have already established in a previous thread, named "Proto-Greek trojans", Latin was a language that the Romans picked up from the Dorian invasion, which was a Hittite invasion, from Indo-Aryans.
Alba longa
Alba Longa (occasionally written Albalonga in Italian sources) was an ancient Latin) city in Central Italy, 12 miles (19 km) southeast of Rome, in the Alban Hills. Founder and head of the Latin League, it was destroyed by the Roman Kingdom around the middle of the 7th century BC, and its inhabitants were forced to settle in Rome.
Link for photo
Alba location
Scotland:
I would also just like to quickly point out, that Alba "has always" either, been the name for Scotland, or alternative Gaelic name for Scotland, and was even the name for the Island of Britain, before the Romans pushed the Alba border up to Hadrians wall.
Alba
Alba (English: /ˈælbə/) is the Scottish Gaelic name (pronounced [ˈal̪ˠapə]) for Scotland. It is cognate with the Irish term Alba (gen. Alban, dat. Albain) and the Manx term Nalbin, the two other Goidelic Insular Celtic languages, as well as contemporary words used in Cornish (Alban) and Welsh (Yr Alban), both of which are Brythonic Insular Celtic languages. (The third surviving Brythonic language, Breton, instead uses Bro-Skos, meaning 'country of the Scots'.) In the past these terms were names for Great Britain as a whole, related to the Brythonic name Albion.
Link for photo
Alba
Corineus:
Now Brutus was not the only "Trojan" that had been supposedly enslaved in Greece, to have ended up escaping enslavement, and becoming a king of Britain.
Corineus partnered Brutus, and became king of Cornwall.
Corineus
Corineus, in medieval British legend, was a prodigious warrior, a fighter of giants, and the eponymous founder of Cornwall.
According to Geoffrey of Monmouth's History of the Kings of Britain (1136), he led the descendants of the Trojans who fled with Antenor) after the Trojan War and settled on the coasts of the Tyrrhenian Sea. After Brutus, a descendant of the Trojan prince Aeneas, had been exiled from Italy and liberated the enslaved Trojans in Greece, he encountered Corineus and his people
Link for photo
Corineus. likely location stonehenge
Trojan war:
Now, whilst all we have for the Trojan war, is incoherent, likely usurped myths and legends, this does not take away that fact, that at this period in time, there truly was a war being fought between the Indo-European Hittite empire, and Greece.
As we established in the previous "Proto-Greek trojan thread, the Kaskas were a Greek army that attacked the Hittites, causing the Hittites to add Greece to their list of enemies.
Early history
The Kaska, probably originating from the eastern shore of the Propontis,[4] may have displaced the speakers of the Palaic language from their home in Pala).[citation needed]
The Kaska first appear in the Hittite prayer inscriptions that date from the reign of Hantili II, c. 1450 BC, and make references to their movement into the ruins of the holy city of Nerik.[5] During the reign of Hantili's son, Tudhaliya II (c. 1430 BC), "Tudhaliya's 3rd campaign was against the Kaskas."[6] His successor Arnuwanda I composed a prayer for the gods to return Nerik to the empire; he also mentioned Kammama and Zalpuwa as cities which he claimed had been Hittite but which were now under the Kaskas. Arnuwanda attempted to mollify some of the Kaska tribes by means of tribute.
Link for photo
Trojan horse
Ramesses III:
Now, as we have already established in many previous threads, the real enemies of the Hittites, were the Egyptians, fighting over the land of Mesopotamia.
And Ramesses III won a battle against Sea peoples, and those that he did not kill, he enslaved and enlisted in to the Egyptian army, and then rehomed in Dan, in Canaan.
Tenure of constant war
Ramesses III incorporated the Sea Peoples as subject peoples and settled them in southern Canaan. Their presence in Canaan may have contributed to the formation of new states in this region such as Philistia after the collapse of the Egyptian Empire in Asia. Ramesses III was also compelled to fight invading Libyan tribesmen in two major campaigns in Egypt's Western Delta in his Year 5 and Year 11 respectively.[6]
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Ramesses III
Northerners from all lands:
And of course, as we have already established in previous threads, Merneptah described the Sea peoples as being "Northerners from all lands".
Campaigns
[Beginning of the victory that his majesty achieved in the land of Libya] -I, Ekwesh, Teresh, Lukka, Sherden, Shekelesh, Northerners coming from all lands.
Link for photo
Merneptah
Romulus and Remus:
Ok, so, now that i have implied that it would not be in the least bit unbelievable, that Hittites from Northern regions, did indeed escape enslavement whilst making war in the Medes, during this precise period, i will now go to one of Romes greatest legends.
Apparently the founders of Rome, were Romulus and Remus, from the first king of Alba.
Alba longa
In legend, Romulus and Remus, founders of Rome, had come from the royal dynasty of Alba Longa, which in Virgil's Aeneid had been the bloodline of Aeneas, a son of Venus).[1]
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She wolf and Twins
Cunedagius & Marganus
Now, if there is any truth in the Romulus & Remus legend, it would almost definitely mean that Rome was founded by Brits, from Albion.
This is due to the fact, that the Romulus and Remus legend, is almost definitely taken from the Celtic legend, of Cordelia.
Cordelia of Britain
Queen Cordelia (or Cordeilla) was a legendary Queen of the Britons), as recounted by Geoffrey of Monmouth. She was the youngest daughter of Leir and the second ruling queen of pre-Roman Britain.
Cordelia of Britain:
You see, Cordelia of Britain, is said to have been the first born princess of Queen Goneril and King Regan, right around the time of the Romulus and Remus narrative.
Now, Cordelias parents decided to split up her kingdom between her younger brothers and sisters, and she was so displeased with this, that she ended up being deported from Britain, and went to live in Gaul, with king of the Franks.
However, a few years later, she came back to Britain with the King of the Franks and his army, and conquered Britain.
King Aganippus temporarly became king of Britain, before dying, and Cordelia became queen of Britain.
A proper she-wolf?
Legend
Leir became exiled from Britain and fled to Cordelia in Gaul, seeking a restoration of his throne which had been seized by the husbands of his other daughters. She raised an army and invaded Britain, defeating the ruling dukes and restoring Leir. After Leir's death three years later, Cordelia's husband Aganippus died, and she returned to Britain and was crowned queen.[1]
Link for photo
Cordelia
Death of Cordelia:
Cordelia ruled peacefully for five years.
But her sisters sons despised her, and they killed her, and crowned themselves.
However Cuniedagius ended up killing Marganus.
Legend
Cordelia ruled peacefully for five years until her sisters' sons, Cunedagius and Marganus, came of age. As the dukes of Cornwall and Albany, respectively, they despised the rule of a woman when they claimed proper descent to rule. They raised armies and fought against Cordelia, who fought in person at numerous battles. She was captured and imprisoned by her nephews. In her grief, she committed suicide. Cunedagius succeeded her in the kingship of Britain in the lands southwest of the Humber. Marganus ruled the region northeast of the Humber. Civil war broke out between them soon after,[1] with Marganus' being defeated and killed.
Link for photo
Cordelias execution
Rivallo:
Perhaps Cunedagius killed Marganus over rulership of Rome?
After-all, Cunedagius son, and next king of Britain, was named "Rivallo".
Sounds Italian.
Cunedagius
Cunedagius killed him and became king of all of Britain. He ruled all of Britain for 33 years and was succeeded by his son Rivallo.[2]
Geoffrey synchronizes Cunedagius' reign with the ministry of the Jewish prophet Isaiah and the founding of Rome by Romulus and Remus.[2] Both events are dated to the 8th century BC.
Rome:
And it is not true that Rome was only founded "after" the Romulus and Remus legend.
Archaeological evidence supports Rome being an established City, dating back to the 8th Century BC.
Earliest history
These developments, which according to archaeological evidence took place during the mid-eighth century BC, can be considered as the "birth" of the city.[21]
Link for photo
Italy
14,000 years:
And archaeological evidence also suggests, that the city of Rome was slowly built by developing villages, dating as far back as the Younger dryas
Earliest history
While there have been discoveries of archaeological evidence of human occupation of the Rome area from approximately 14,000 years ago, the dense layer of much younger debris obscures Palaeolithic and Neolithic sites.[7]
Link for photo
Pyramid of Gaius
submitted by StevenStevens43 to AhrensburgCulture [link] [comments]


2020.09.11 20:24 misunderstood_9gager Its so hypocritical that people complain about people liking romantic movies, when those same people usually love the same thing in Manga/Anime

Person: "Lol, these romantic movies set unrealistic standards and I hate them!"
Also person: "I hope abusive hot girl and protagonist get togheter in Some Anime even though the only way protagonist got any chance with her is because he is a mythological creature!"
Other person: "Look at these silly people investing in Twilight love triangle, lmao!"
Also Other Person: "IF EREN DOES NOT GET WITH MIKASA/HISTORIA I WILL KILL MYSELF!!!!" (Attack on Titan)
Some dude on Reddit: "Lol at these women wanting Mr Grey from 50 Shades to be real, he is abusive!"
The very same dude on Reddit: "Why can't Touka from Tokyo Ghoul be real!!!??? Hmm? What do you mean she is physicacally abusive against the guy she loves? So WHAT!"
Its a FANTASY! Its fine to have them. Its fine if you either want Mr Grey from 50 Shades to spank you and be in love with you, as it is fine wanting Touka from Tokyo Ghoul to be real so you can date her.
I am just so tired of people going "These romantic movies are so unrealistic, and are trash" and then go into some useless Anime shipwar within the same day.
submitted by misunderstood_9gager to rant [link] [comments]


2020.09.06 22:30 StevenStevens43 Ancient Cymru

Ancient Cymru
Cymru:
Cymru is the old Welsh name for Wales.
Cymru
Wales (Welsh: Cymru [ˈkəm.rɨ] (📷listen)) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.
Link for photo.svg)
Welsh flag
Mereruka:
Now, Aryan looking people can be traced all the way back to at least 2600 BC in positions of high power in Ancient egypt.
There is copious amounts of evidence for this.
I will provide "one" piece of evidence for this thread.
Mereruka
Mereruka served during the Sixth Dynasty of Egypt as one of Egypt's most powerful officials at a time when the influence of local state noblemen was increasing in wealth and power. Mereruka held numerous titles along with that of Vizier), which made him the most powerful person in Egypt after the king himself.
Link for photo
Mereruka
Hyksos:
Ancient Egypt had pretty much been under foreign influence and rulership, for much of Ancient Egypts history.
However this changed again, in 1549 BC, when "not for the first time", a native ancient Egyptian launched a successful Theban uprising against foreign rulers, and expelled them from Egypt.
Ahmose I
Ahmose I (Ancient Egyptian: jꜥḥ ms(j.w), reconstructed /ʔaʀaħ'ma:sjə/ (MK), Egyptological pronunciation Ahmose, sometimes written as Amosis or Aahmes, meaning "Iah (the Moon) is born"[5][6]) was a pharaoh and founder of the Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt, classified as the first dynasty of the New Kingdom of Egypt, the era in which ancient Egypt achieved the peak of its power. He was a member of the Theban royal house, the son of pharaoh Seqenenre Tao and brother of the last pharaoh of the Seventeenth dynasty, Kamose. During the reign of his father or grandfather, Thebes rebelled against the Hyksos, the rulers of Lower Egypt. When he was seven years old, his father was killed,[7] and he was about ten when his brother died of unknown causes after reigning only three years. Ahmose I assumed the throne after the death of his brother,[8] and upon coronation became known as nb-pḥtj-rꜥ "The Lord of Strength is Ra".
During his reign, Ahmose completed the conquest and expulsion of the Hyksos from the Nile Delta, restored Theban rule over the whole of Egypt and successfully reasserted Egyptian power in its formerly subject territories of Nubia and Canaan.
Link for photo
Ahmose I
Thutmose III:
However the native ancient Egyptians did not leave it here. And one of Ahmose I's descendants would lead the greatest military invasion in to enemy lands, that the Ancient egyptian empire ever saw.
Thutmose III
Widely considered a military genius by historians, Thutmose III conducted at least 16 campaigns in 20 years.[14] He was an active expansionist ruler, sometimes called Egypt's greatest conqueror or "the Napoleon of Egypt."[15] He is recorded to have captured 350 cities during his rule and conquered much of the Near East from the Euphrates to Nubia during seventeen known military campaigns. He was the first pharaoh after Thutmose I to cross the Euphrates, doing so during his campaign against Mitanni.
Link for photo
Thutmose III
Mitanni kings:
Now, it must be pointed out, that Thutmose was now subjugating kings that are on the outskirts of a European empire, as the Mitanni kings, even though their kingdom is populated by Akkadian/Sumerian speakers, are in fact Indo-Aryan kings.
They are likely on the retreat, from this Hyksos conquest, but they also likely have an empire of their own they can call upon, if required.
Mitanni
While the Mitanni kings were supposedly Indo-Aryan, they used the language of the local people, which was at that time a non-Indo-European language, Hurrian.
Link for photo
Mitanni
Hittite empire:
Now, to the left of the kings of Mitanni, there was an empire named "the Hittite empire".
The Hittites came down and became native Egypts biggest rival, and immediately put the Egyptian expansion in to reverse.
Hittites
Between the 15th and 13th centuries BCE, the Empire of Hattusa, conventionally called the Hittite Empire, came into conflict with the New Kingdom of Egypt, the Middle Assyrian Empire and the empire of the Mitanni for control of the Near East.
Link for photo
Hittite empire
Origins:
Now, the Hittites were not native to Antolia, they were actually european.
Originally, they were likely from the Caucasus, pretty close to the Scandinavian land bridge between Russia and Finland.
They came from Old europe, which makes them 50% Aryan, at the very least.
You might also want to ask yourself, how on earth did this empire just suddenly become powerful enough to put the Ancient egyptian empire in to reverse?
Origins
According to Anthony, steppe herders, archaic Proto-Indo-European speakers, spread into the lower Danube valley about 4200–4000 BC, either causing or taking advantage of the collapse of Old Europe).[25] Their languages "probably included archaic Proto-Indo-European dialects of the kind partly preserved later in Anatolian."[26] Their descendants later moved into Anatolia at an unknown time but maybe as early as 3000 BC.[27] According to J. P. Mallory it is likely that the Anatolians reached the Near East from the north either via the Balkans or the Caucasus in the 3rd millennium BC.[28]
Kassites:
Now eventually the Hittites conquered the Egyptian vassalship of Babylonia.
Though the Hittites handed vassalship of Babylonia over to their Kassite allies, thus turning Babylonia in to a Hittite vassal kingdom.
Old kingdom
Mursili continued the conquests of Hattusili I. Mursili's conquests reached southern Mesopotamia and even ransacked Babylon itself in 1531 BC (short chronology).[44] Rather than incorporate Babylonia into Hittite domains, Mursili seems to have instead turned control of Babylonia over to his Kassite allies,
Eu-Gamil:
Of course, the Semitic/Sumerian ex babylonians did not give up Babylonia that easily, and likely retreated to a swampy area in Sealand, from were they could continue to conduct hit and run guerrilla warfare upon the Kassites.
Ea-gamil
Ea-gâmil, the ultimate king of the dynasty, fled to Elam ahead of an invading horde led by Kassite chief Ulam-Buriaš, brother of the king of Babylon Kashtiliash III, who conquered the Sealand, incorporated it into Babylonia and “made himself master of the land.”
Link for photo
https://preview.redd.it/5btdhx6kjkl51.jpg?width=800&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=91cae1c72edc789ba6ad061c4089bf58c8106059
Sealand dynasty:
The Kassites were likely able to defeat the Sealanders with the help of their navy, and add "master of Sealand", to the growing number of Hittite titles.
It is likely that the Kassites were the Naval arm of the Hittite empire, and this is why Babylonia was given to the Kassites.
The perfect area for a naval base, given the Port of UR allowing easy access to the Indian ocean, and port of Tyre offering easy access to the Mediterranaen, as well as easy access to the Euphrates and Tigres.
The Hittites likely had other Western naval groups that were in supervision of Troy.
Sealand dynasty
The Sealand Dynasty, (URU.KÙKI[nb 1][1][2]) or the 2nd Dynasty of Babylon (although it was independent of Amorite-ruled Babylon), very speculatively c. 1732–1460 BC (short chronology), is an enigmatic series of kings attested to primarily in laconic references in the king lists A and B, and as contemporaries recorded on the Assyrian Synchronistic king list A.117. The dynasty, which had broken free of the short lived, and by this time crumbling Babylonian Empire, was named for the province in the far south of Mesopotamia, a swampy region bereft of large settlements which gradually expanded southwards with the silting up of the mouths of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers
Link for photo
Naval bases
Ramesses III:
Rameeses III's reign ended with the end of the Native egyptian empire.
He was able to win a "battle" against the Sea peoples, but unfortunately, the 200 year war against Sea peoples, took it's toll on Egypt, and Egypt fell to the Hittites Libyan allies.
Ramesses III
He led the way by defeating the invaders known as "the Sea Peoples", who had caused destruction in other civilizations and empires. He was able to save Egypt from collapsing at the time when many other empires fell during the Late Bronze Age; however, the damage of the invasions took a toll on Egypt.[1]
Constant war:
Constant war against Libyans, and Sea peoples, took it's toll.
Tenure of constant war
During his long tenure in the midst of the surrounding political chaos of the Late Bronze Age collapse, Egypt was beset by foreign invaders (including the so-called Sea Peoples and the Libyans)
Ramesses II:
Hittite land armies began defeating the crumbling Egyptian land armies, as the Egyptians simply could not handle fighting Sea peoples attacking from boats and rivers, Libyans, at the same time as fighting Hittites in pitch battles.
Third Syria campaign
Egypt's sphere of influence was now restricted to Canaan while Syria fell into Hittite hands.
Merneptah:
Merneptah recorded the defeat as being a defeat coming from "Northerners" of all lands.
Campaigns
[Beginning of the victory that his majesty achieved in the land of Libya] -I, Ekwesh, Teresh, Lukka, Sherden, Shekelesh, Northerners coming from all lands.
Link for photo
Merneptah
23rd dynasty:
By the 23rd dynasty, Libyans would assume the throne of Egypt.
Libyans had been one of Egypts longest lasting enemies.
23rd dynasty of egypt
The Twenty-third Dynasty of Egypt (notated Dynasty XXIII, alternatively 23rd Dynasty or Dynasty 23) is usually classified as the third dynasty of the ancient Egyptian Third Intermediate Period. This dynasty consisted of a number of Meshwesh ancient Libyan (Berber) kings, who ruled either as pharaohs or independent kings of parts of Upper Egypt from 880 BC to 720 BC, and pharaohs from 837 BC to 728 BC.
Ukraine:
Now, i would like to go back to the earliest known roots for the Hittite empire.
Ukraine would be a good start, as Ukraine is pretty close to the Caucasus.
Ukraine
Ukraine (Ukrainian: Україна, romanized: Ukrayina, pronounced [ʊkrɐˈjinɐ] (📷listen); Russian: Украина, tr. Ukraina, IPA: [ʊkrɐˈinə]) is a country in Eastern Europe.[10] It is bordered by Russia to the east and north-east; Belarus to the north; Poland, Slovakia and Hungary to the west; and Romania, Moldova, and the Black Sea to the south. Ukraine also borders the Crimean Peninsula to its south, which Russia annexed from Ukraine in 2014, though Ukraine still continues to claim the territory.[11] Including the Crimean Peninsula, Ukraine has an area of 603,628 km2 (233,062 sq mi),[12] making it the second-largest country by area in Europe after Russia,
Link for photo.png)
Ukraine
Scoloti:
Now, in around 700 BC there was a tribe/army turned up in the Ukraine named the Scoloti.
This tribe allied themselves to the already existing tribe/army, in this region, named "the Crimmerians".
You have likely heard of the Scoloti.
Another name for them, is Scythians.
The Scythians are a people at the centre of the age of migrations, were tribes begin branching off in their seperate directions across europe, likely at the end of the fall of the Hittite empire.
The migrations, take the exact same root as the previous migrations, only, this time, in the opposite direction.
Scythians
Based in what is modern-day Ukraine and southern Russia, the Scythians called themselves Scoloti and were led by a nomadic warrior aristocracy known as the Royal Scythians.
In the 7th century BC, the Scythians crossed the Caucasus and frequently raided the Middle East along with the Cimmerians, playing an important role in the political developments of the region.[10]
Link for photo
Age of migrations
Scylfings:
Now, according to Norse-mythology, the first Swedish kings arrived in Sweden at the end of the age of Migrations.
Yngling
The Ynglings were a legendary dynasty of kings, supposedly originating from Sweden. It can refer to the clans of the Scylfings (Old Norse Skilfingar), the semi-legendary royal Swedish clan during the Age of Migrations,
Onela:
In fact, they "usurped" already existing Swedish thrones.
Onela
Onela was according to Beowulf a Swedish king, the son of Ongentheow and the brother of Ohthere. He usurped the Swedish throne, but was killed by his nephew Eadgils, who won by hiring foreign assistance.
Cimmerians:
Now Cimmerians pre-dated the Scythians in this region, though they did ally themselves with the Scythians.Scoloti, suggesting they already had some cultural association, though in fact, they were slightly seperate peoples.
Cimmerians
The Cimmerians (also Kimmerians; Greek: Κιμμέριοι, Kimmérioi) were a nomadic Indo-European people, who appeared about 1000 BC[1] and are mentioned later in 8th century BC in Assyrian records. While the Cimmerians were often described by contemporaries as culturally "Scythian", they evidently differed ethnically from the Scythians proper, who also displaced and replaced the Cimmerians
Doggerland:
It is to do with the fact that Doggerland once connected britain to France, and therefore Britain was a little more Eurasian in genetics than those from the house of Ynglings, that are pure Aryans.
Link for photo
Doggerland
War:
The Scotoli would actually later turn on the Cimmerians, and send them in to Germany.
Scythians
the Scythians replaced the Cimmerians as the dominant power on the Pontic Steppe in the 8th century BC.[10
Royal family:
The Cimmerians did not stand a chance against the Scotoli/Scythians, as the Royal family were Scotoli.
Scythians
Scoloti and were led by a nomadic warrior aristocracy known as the Royal Scythians.
Meshwesh:
Now, it is likely that the "Meshwesh" referred to by Ramesses III as being one of the many groups which made up the Sea-peoples, the Meshwesh were likely Cimmerians.
Tenure of constant war
internal strife which would eventually lead to the collapse of the Twentieth Dynasty. In Year 8 of his reign, the Sea Peoples, including Peleset, Denyen, Shardana, Meshwesh of the sea, and Tjekker, invaded Egypt by land and sea.
Welsh man:
Now, the reason for this, is that Cimmerian translates in to the old Brythonic language as "Welshman".
This theory is accepted now, so much, that most scholars and historians now accept, that the Cimmerians were under over-lordship
Legacy
Early modern historians asserted Cimmerian descent for the Celts or the Germans, arguing from the similarity of Cimmerii to Cimbri or Cymry. The etymology of Cymro "Welshman" (plural: Cymry), connected to the Cimmerians by 17th-century Celticists, is now accepted by Celtic linguists as being derived from a Brythonic word *kom-brogos, meaning "compatriot".[21] The Cambridge Ancient History classifies the Maeotians as either a people of Cimmerian ancestry or as Caucasian under Iranian overlordship.[22]
Britain:
Does this mean that the Cimmerians were Welsh?
Not exactly.
It means that Brythonic speaking people with origins in Briton were in the middle to near east, fighting wars, during this period, and were likely fighting for the legendary, but most likely, factual, house of Ynglings.
It also means, it is likely not unbelievable in the slightest, that in 900 BC, a man named Brutus turned up on the shores of cornwall in a boat, and became the first King of Britain.
Brutus of Troy:
Link for photo
Brutus, or Brute of Troy, is a legendary descendant of the Trojan hero Aeneas, known in medieval British history as the eponymous founder and first king of Britain. This legend first appears in the Historia Brittonum, an anonymous 9th-century historical compilation to which commentary was added by Nennius, but is best known from the account given by the 12th-century chronicler Geoffrey of Monmouth in his Historia Regum Britanniae.

Brutus
Summary:
It would actually be more unbelievable, that this legend, is not true. Given what we know about contemporary history.
submitted by StevenStevens43 to AhrensburgCulture [link] [comments]


2020.09.06 21:38 rbastid How are you managing your Historia Crystals/ Rat Tails?

This week (Wed Sept 9) we're getting a new fight to attempt over the next few weeks (and returning in a few months.) Gilgamesh is similar to the Prismatic Omega fight, but changes based on Realm instead of element.
 
So seeing how sometimes Historia Crystals work better in these situations, instead of Magicites, how have you been using your crystals and rat tails? Are you spending them freely? Taking 1 or 2 to 99? Trying to get them all to 80?
 
The amount of exp needed per level cap are: 1 - 50 - 374,560. 50 - 65 - (Seems I have no level 50 to check) 65 - 80 - 3,119,390. 80 - 99 - 7,488,400.
 
Personally I'm trying to get as many as I can to level 80, not hoarding rat tails for a later date. I'm skipping FF8, FF10 and FFT for now, as my team is better off using Ice, Water and Holy (in hindsight I could have used an Earth deck for FF2 also, but when trying to beat the Torment I assumed I'd use Firion, but didn't.)
 
Currently I've leveled: 80 - 2, 9, 11, 12, 13 & 14, and I'm working on getting 4 (lvl 49) , 5 (65) and 0 (1) to 80.
 
I started by leveling those whose Torments I still had to Sub 30 (2, 9, 11, 12 & 14) 13 I did with the assumption I'd attempt the Dreambreaker (I haven't) and then realms I have either 0 or 1 AASB/Syncs.
 
To not waste any rat tail exp, I'm using tails to get right up to the cap without going over, then using Magicite and weekly event to inch my way to the cap.
 
Weekly event EXP is:
 
30 - 1,976. 60 - 4,264. 90 - 8,532. 110 - 12,444. 120 - 14,220. 140 - 17,776. 180 - 25,596. 220 - 29,700. 260 - 32,352. 99 - 10,452. 120 - 14,220. 140 - 17,776. 160 - 21,332. 5* Magicite 52,824.
 
I haven't beaten any of the Dreambreakers, but I think i recieved all tails from every other source, and have 12,680,640 worth of tails to spend, so that should be enough to get the 3 I mentioned to level 80.
 
So what have your plans been? How did you choose which to level or skip?
submitted by rbastid to FFRecordKeeper [link] [comments]


2020.09.04 23:17 TheEscapedGoat Fanfic Friday 9/4/20

I decided to do FF every other Friday, hence the absence of last week's list. Here are some to enjoy this weekend:
Last FF
This Week's Eruri List
beyond the walls: Levi goes on a mission with the Shiganshina Trio; everything goes wrong. Rating: Teen Audiences (graphic description of injuries, no ships)
First Date: Otaku Matchmaking: Jean comes out as a closet weeb. Rating: Teen Audiences
He's Ready: Kenny watches his nephew grow up. Rating: Teen Audiences (no ships)
Queen and Her Knight: King Tybur threatens Eldia; Queen Historia refuses to sit on the sidelines as it happens. Rating: Mature (graphic depictions of violence)
The Soft Place: Members of the 104th have strange memories of a past life they don't remember. Reincarnation AU. Rating: Mature
Make sure to check all tags before reading, and, if you can, please leave a comment on the fics, even if it's just "I loved it"; writers really appreciate it!
submitted by TheEscapedGoat to aotfanfiction [link] [comments]


2020.09.04 00:01 LuminumYT I have no friends

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The pineapple (Ananas comosus) is a tropical plant with an edible fruit and the most economically significant plant in the family Bromeliaceae.[4] The pineapple is indigenous to South America, where it has been cultivated for many centuries. The introduction of the pineapple to Europe in the 17th century made it a significant cultural icon of luxury. Since the 1820s, pineapple has been commercially grown in greenhouses and many tropical plantations. Further, it is the third most important tropical fruit in world production. In the 20th century, Hawaii was a dominant producer of pineapples, especially for the US; however, by 2016, Costa Rica, Brazil, and the Philippines accounted for nearly one-third of the world's production of pineapples.[5]
Pineapples grow as a small shrub; the individual flowers of the unpollinated plant fuse to form a multiple fruit. The plant is normally propagated from the offset produced at the top of the fruit,[2][6] or from a side shoot.
The wild plant originates from the Paraná–Paraguay River drainages between southern Brazil and Paraguay.[2][18][19] Little is known about domestication but it spread as a crop throughout South America, and it eventually reached the Caribbean, Central America, and Mexico, where it was cultivated by the Mayas and the Aztecs.[20] The first European to encounter the pineapple was Columbus, in Guadeloupe on 4 November 1493, by which time cropped pineapple was widely distributed and a stable component of the diet of native Americans.[21][22] The Portuguese took the fruit from Brazil and introduced it into India by 1550.[23] The 'Red Spanish' cultivar was also introduced by the Spanish from Latin America to the Philippines, and it was grown for textile use from at least the 17th century.[24][25]
Charles II is presented with the first pineapple grown in England (1675 painting by Hendrik Danckerts).
Columbus brought the plant back to Spain and called it piña de Indes, meaning "pine of the Indians". The pineapple was documented in Peter Martyr's Decades of the New World in 1516 and Antonio Pigafetta's Le Voyage et Navigacion.. of 1526, and the first known illustration was in Oviedo's Historia General de Las Indias in 1535.[26]
The pineapple fascinated Europeans as a fruit of colonialism[27] but it could not be successfully cultivated in Europe for several centuries until Pieter de la Court developed a greenhouse horticulture near Leyden from about 1658.[28][22] Pineapple plants were distributed from the Netherlands to English gardeners in 1719 and French ones in 1730.[22] In England, the first pineapple was grown at Dorney Court, Dorney in Buckinghamshire, and a huge "pineapple stove" to heat the plants was built at the Chelsea Physic Garden in 1723.[29][30] In France, King Louis XV was presented with a pineapple that had been grown at Versailles in 1733. In Russia, Catherine the Great ate pineapples grown on her own estates before 1796.[31] Because of the expense of direct import and the enormous cost in equipment and labour required to grow them in a temperate climate, using hothouses called "pineries", pineapples soon became a symbol of wealth. They were initially used mainly for display at dinner parties, rather than being eaten, and were used again and again until they began to rot.[32] By the second half of the 18th century, the production of the fruit on British estates had become the subject of great rivalry between wealthy aristocrats.[32] John Murray, 4th Earl of Dunmore built a hothouse on his estate surmounted by a huge stone cupola 14 metres tall in the shape of the fruit; it is known as the Dunmore Pineapple.[33] In architecture, pineapple figures became decorative elements symbolizing hospitality.[34][35][36]
Many different varieties were tried, mostly from the Antilles, for European glasshouse cultivation.The most significant was 'Smooth Cayenne', imported to France in 1820, and subsequently re-exported to the UK in 1835 and then from the UK via Hawaii to Australia and Africa. `Smooth Cayenne'' is now the dominant cultivar in world production.[22] Jams and sweets based on pineapple were being imported to Europe from the West Indies, Brazil and Mexico from an early date, and by the early 19C, fresh pineapples were transported direct from the West Indies in large enough quantities to reduce European prices.[22] Later pineapple production was dominated by the Azores for Europe and Florida and the Caribbean for North America because of the short trade routes.
The Spanish had introduced the pineapple into Hawaii in the 18th century,[37] but the first commercial plantation was not until 1886. The most famous investor was James Dole, who moved to Hawaii in 1899[38] and started a 60 acres (24 ha) pineapple plantation in 1900 which would grow into the Dole Food Company.[39] Dole and Del Monte began growing pineapples on the island of Oahu in 1901 and 1917, respectively, and the Maui Pineapple Company began cultivation on Maui in 1909.[40] James Dole began the commercial processing of pineapple and an automatic peeling and coring machine was developed by Henry Ginaca, a Dole employee, in 1911.[22]
Hawaiian production started to decline from the 1970s because of competition and the shift to refrigerated sea transport. Dole ceased its cannery operations in Honolulu in 1991, and in 2008, Del Monte terminated its pineapple-growing operations in Hawaii.[41] In 2009, the Maui Pineapple Company reduced its operations to supply pineapples only locally on Maui,[42] and by 2013, only the Dole Plantation on Oahu grew pineapples in a volume of about 0.1 percent of the world's production.[41] Despite this decline, the pineapple is sometimes used as a symbol of Hawaii.[43][44] Further, foods with pineapple in them are sometimes known as "Hawaiian" for this reason alone.[45]
In the Philippines, 'Smooth Cayenne' was introduced in the early 1900s by the US Bureau of Agriculture during the American colonial period, and Dole and Del Monte also established plantations in the island of Mindanao in the 1920s; in the provinces of Cotabato and Bukidnon, respectively.[24][46][25] Large scale canning had started in Southeast Asia, including in the Philippines, from 1920 although this trade was severely damaged by the Second World War, and Hawaii dominated the international trade until the 1960s.
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/67/Abacaxi_%28Ananas_comosus%29_2014-07-14_20-40.jpg/1920px-Abacaxi_%28Ananas_comosus%29_2014-07-14_20-40.jpg
submitted by LuminumYT to teenagers [link] [comments]


2020.09.01 11:31 HauntedSpy SKs you never might've heard of: Europe

\Note: Since several countries overlap into Asia, I've decided to exclude some: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Cyprus, Georgia, Kazakhstan and Turkey will be in the* Asia post since most/all of their territory is there. Russia is an exception, as the majority of it is in Europe, and thus will be included in this post. In this post, I'll showcase a convicted or suspected SK in each country* on the European continent from a list I've been compiling about SKs around the world, which have yet to receive a Wikipedia entry. Each section will contain some info on their crimes, and a link/source from which I got it. I hope you'll find this as interesting as I do. Let us begin. ALBANIA: Sadik Kuniqi (2002; 4 victims) A delusional former soldier, he bludgeoned to death a friend and his wife in Shkodër in January 2002. Two months later, he repeated the action against another friend and his family, killing the man and his child, and almost killing the wife. In his diary, he claimed that his victims had attempted to kill him at least 33 times, and the murders were retaliatory. Sentenced to life imprisonment. ANDORRA: Joaquín Villalón Díez (1981/1992; 3 victims) The Gentleman Killer Spanish man who murdered and dismembered his lover with an electric saw in the Andorran town of Les Escaldes in 1981. Deemed mentally ill, he served time in a mental institution and released 10 years later. He returned to Madrid, Spain, where in the span of two weeks, he murdered two transsexuals: one died from third degree burns suffered from a fire, and the other was drowned in a bathtub. Imprisoned again, but released from the institution in 2013. AUSTRIA: Himberg serial killer (1997/2015; 3 victims) Hungarian national who murdered his girlfriend in his home country in 1997. Served time, moved to Austria, where he murdered a Slovak woman and his girlfriend in Himberg (the first in early 2015, and the other in October). His name has been withheld. Sentenced to life imprisonment. BELARUS: Lida serial killer (unknown-2020; 1-5+ victims) Only known by the name 'Yuri', he confessed to butchering and dismembering a woman in Tarnovo, Lida District, whose discarded remains were found on January 3rd this year. He confessed to a friend that there were at least five victims killed in a similar manner. Notably, he had previously been convicted for taking bus passengers hostage in 2003. Detained by police, his case is under investigation at the time of writing. BELGIUM: Steven Daubioul (2005-2013; 3 victims) A sex pest, he stabbed and strangled to death three women in Charleroi's Lodelinsart section while either high on drugs or to satisfy his sexual urges. In addition, he sexually assaulted a 5-year-old and had child pornography in his apartment when arrested. Sentenced to life imprisonment. BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA: Edin Gačić (1996-2019; 4 victims) A few months after the Bosnian War ended, he killed his roommate in Banja Luka. Convicted, served 8 years and released. While on parole in 2002, he went to his mother's apartment in Zenica, where he shot and stabbed her. Convicted in February 2003, he escaped in 2019, and in the span of a week, shot to death two men (one being a police officer) in Suhodol. Gunned down by authorities on February 12, 2019. BULGARIA: Georgi Dobryanov (1982-1985; 5+ victims) The Lozen Strangler Rapist who strangled at least five women around the Stolichnina Municipality, Sofia City Province. An innocent man was convicted for the first murder and served time in prison, and his case later caused changes in criminal law to prevent similar miscarriages of justice. Executed 1986. CROATIA: Srđan Mlađan (1998-2002; 3 victims) The Monster of Sisak Inspired to kill by movies such as Born To Kill, at the age of 15, he shot and killed a girlfriend with an automanic rifle. A little over a month later, he shot and killed an elderly neighbor with his father's rifle. He was arrested and served time, but was released in 2002 on parole. He then tried to rob a bank in Zagreb, shooting one of the arresting officers. Sentenced to 27 years imprisonment. CZECH REPUBLIC: Michal Semanský (2009-2013; 3 victims) Killed pensioners during robberies in the Hradec Králové Region. Arrested for a burglary, later confessed to the three killings. Two of the victims were his relatives. Sentenced to life imprisonment. DENMARK: Ashraf Shahidani (1991-1994; 3-9 victims) Iranian refugee who stabbed, strangled and dismembered fellow immigrants and elderly pensioners around Hvidobre, Herning and Viborg. When arrested, he confessed to an additional murder in Viborg, as well as five other homicides in Sweden and Italy, but those couldn't be verified. Found not guilty by reason of insanity, and sent to a psychiatric institution. ESTONIA: Margus Luuk (1991-2007; 3 victims) Murdered a man in Kehra, sentenced to 8 years imprisonment. While in the Rummu prison, he murdered a fellow inmate in 1995. He was released on parole, had some convictions for drug possesion in 2002 and served time until 2006. In 2007, he attended a party in Mustjõe, where he proceeed to stab four men during an altercation, killing one of them. Sentenced to life imprisonment. FINLAND: Tommi Taneli Nakari (1992-2008; 3 victims) Stabbed his common-law wife in 1992, slitting her throat. Served time, released in 1998, whereupon he beat and stabbed his mother. Released on parole, began dating a woman in 2008, whom he then stabbed and suffocated to death during a violent altercation. In each instance, he claimed he couldn't remember what had transpired. Sentenced to 14.5 years imprisonment. FRANCE: Mohamed Faleh (1995-1999; 3 victims) The Axe Killer A Moroccan-born factory worker, he butchered to death three men in Belfort and Montbéliard, stealing their money afterwards. He was captured after a would-be fourth victim survived his attack. Sentenced to life imprisonment. GERMANY: Uwe Wischniewski (1986/1991; 3 victims) A megalomaniacal cattle farmer, he raped and strangled a 17-year-old girl, discarding her corpse at a garbage dump in Brandenburg. Five years later, he raped and strangled two girls (16 and 15, respectively) in Marzahn, disposing of their bodies in a nearby forest. At the time, he was applying for a job at a Berlin Penitentiary. Sentenced to life imprisonment. GREECE: Yanis Baltass (1995-2004; 4 victims) In May 2004, he abducted his ex-fiancée from her home in Thessaloniki, killing one of her brothers in the process. After his arrest, he inexplicably confessed to three other murders: the victims were Albanian farm workers employed by him, two killed in in 1995 and one in 1996. The reasons? "They didn't milk the goats well", and the latter asked him for money that he was owed. Sentenced to life imprisonment. HUNGARY: Fourth Highway Killer (2007-2010; 4+ victims) Murdered at least three prostitutes around Karcag, and is thought to be responsible for the disappearance of a fourth. Some investigators claim that he might've began killing in the area since 1994, while others suspected that there are different perpetrators. Unsolved. ICELAND: None to my knowledge IRELAND: Maria Dunne (1896; 3+ victims) Baby farmer who killed young children in Inchicore. One of them died later at a South Dublin Hospital from the abuse it had suffered. She had neglected countless other infants, and likely murdered more than what was known. Case outcome unknown. ITALY: Ernst Schrott (1993/1995; 2+ victims) A Bolzano farmhand who murdered two prostitutes in Trentino. Although officially convicted of only two murders, I believe that he has other victims, as the gap between the years is too long, and it is said that he frequented the prostitution scene. Sentenced to life imprisonment. KOSOVO: None to my knowledge LATVIA: Yuri Krinitsyn (1975; 3 victims) The Riga Ghoul Extortionist who murdered three men, two of them KGB officials, over the summer in Riga. He was captured with the help of world-renowned composer and piano player Raimonds Pauls, whom he had tried to extort. Executed 1976. LIECHTENSTEIN: None to my knowledge LITHUANIA: Tadas Viselga (2011-2014; 3 victims) Poisoned his father (2011) and two girlfriends (OctoneDecember 2014) with clonazepam, in order to profit off their deaths by obtaining their apartments. Sentenced to life imprisonment. LUXEMBOURG: None to my knowledge MALTA: None to my knowledge MOLDOVA: Durlești Maniac (2007-2011; 6 victims) Also known as the Moldovan Zodiac, he attacked couples in the Durlești and Ialoveni areas, killing six people and wounding many others. A man was prosecuted and convicted for one of the murders, but was later found to be innocent. Unsolved. MONACO: None to my knowledge MONTENEGRO: None to my knowledge NETHERLANDS: Theodorus van Berkel (1940-1960: 3+ victims) A dangerous sex offender who served time in the USA for serial rapes of children, he was deported to North Brabant, where he went on to kill at least three children in two decades. Suspected of other murders, including a 1941 double murder in Mierlo. Died in prison. NORTH MACEDONIA: Laze Radevski (1993-2003; 3 victims) The Ohrid Serial Killer Stabbed to death three foreign currency dealers in Ohrid. I could get little information on this guy, since most of the news link appear to be dead. Sentenced to life imprisonment. NORWAY: Sofie Johannesdotter (1869-1875; 5-8 victims) Swedish maid who poisoned her employers in present-day Halden, burning down the home of a couple as well. Also suspected of poisoning three other people, but denide responsibility for those deaths. Executed 1876. POLAND: Kołobrzeg Serial Killer (2016-2018; 3+ victims) Known only as 'Mariusz G.', a local entrepreneur linked to the murders of at least three prostitutes in the area. The victims' properties, including a car, were later found in his possession. Awaiting trial. PORTUGAL: Zé Borrego (1960s; 5+ victims) A deeply religious trader, he moved to Lisbon, where a divine power allegedy told him to murder homosexual men. He would lure them on the pretense of sexual favors, then strangled them in their bedrooms, dismembering the bodies and throwing the remains in the nearby river. Committed suicide in jail. ROMANIA: Adrian Stroe (1992; 3 victims) The Taxi Driver Killer Former taxi driver who killed prostitutes in Bucharest between March and September, throwing their bodies in the Pantelimon lake or the Glina Canal. First known SK following the Romanian Revolution. Sentenced to life imprisonment. RUSSIA: Sergey Kashintsev (1975-1987; 8-58 victims) The Limping Killer Despite being born with a disability in his legs causing a severe limp, Kashintsev was a savvy and ruthless killer who raped and strangled his victims all across the RSFSR using a noose. Due to the different oblasts not connecting the murders, he was allowed to roam free for a long time. After his arrest, he claimed 58 victims, surpassing the victim count of maniacs like Andrei Chikatilo and Anatoly Onoprienko. Executed 1990. SAN MARINO: None to my knowledge SERBIA: Stole Trifunović (1940s-1948; 16-60+ victims) The Serbian Ripper An academically gifted man, but sexually promiscuous and a Jack the Ripper fanatic, he would beat and kill victims of both sexes, mainly couples, raping the women. Horrifyingly, while torturing his victims, he would read them poetry from literature from the likes of Honoré de Balzac. When arrested, he confessed to killing at least 60 people in Belgrade and the surrounding area. Committed suicide in prison. SLOVAKIA: Marek Zivala (1996-1998; 3 victims) A violent sadomasochist, he would tie up his victims with cloths and shove towels down their mouths, either leaving them to suffocate or strangling them before robbing their apartments. The first killing was in the Czech town of Most, while the other were in Žilina and Topoľčany. Sentenced to life imprisonment. SLOVENIA: Anna Vucored (1930s-1938; 1-6 victims) Maid who strangled the children of her employers because they were crying too much. Arrested for one murder in Slovenske Konjice, but confessed to another five which had mysteriously died under her care. Case outcome unknown. SPAIN: Almería serial killer (1989-1996; 10+ victims) The naked bodies of young, drug-addicted prostitutes were discovered either beaten or strangled to death in the region. The similarities in these crimes suggested a serial offender was working in the area, with some suspecting that German truck driver Volker Eckert might've been responsible. No definitive suspects have been arrested, and the case remains cold. Unsolved. SWEDEN: Alva Nordberg (1905; 3-4 victims) Stockholm baby farmer who killed children between May to July, 1905. She was not convicted in the final death. Sentenced to four years imprisonment, further fate unknown. SWITZERLAND: Roland Kübler (1982-2008; 3-4 victims) Former psychiatric nurse who sexually abused and strangled two boys (1982 and 1996) and later an inmate in prison, who was about to be released. Additionally suspected of killing a 17-year-old in 1984, and burying his body in the forest near Schaffhausen. His case was covered on Forensic Files. Died in prison. UKRAINE: Yuriy 'Elvis' Kuzmenko (2006-2009; 13+ victims) The Boyarka Maniac Suffering from money problems and alcohol dependency, he would go around the Kiev-Sviatoshyn Raion, where he would rob, rape and strangle at least 13 girls and young women. After his arrest, he confessed to a total of 206 murders, and was willing to help the investigators locate all the bodies. It's unclear if the investigation into his claims is continuing. Sentenced to life imprisonment. UNITED KINGDOM: BERMUDA: Wendell Lightbourne (1959; 3 victims) Golf caddie who raped and strangled female tourists around the island's southern shores between March and September, leaving bite marks on the bodies. Only known SK in the territory's history. Sentenced to death, commuted to life imprisonment, which is he serving in an undisclosed prison in England. ENGLAND: William Burkitt (1915-1939; 3 victims) The Hessle Road Killer A local fisherman, Burkitt strangled and stabbed three wives to death in Hull (1915, 1925, 1939), being released from prison each time. Yes, including the last one. However, he was finally detained indefinitely to the Hull Royal Infirmary, where he tried to unsuccessfully escape from. Died in the hospital. NORTHERN IRELAND: None to my knowledge SCOTLAND: Susan MacLeod (1996-2001; 2-3 victims) Smothered to death three of her children in Glasgow's, wrapping the bodies up in bin bags and leaving them at her flat. Found guilty of two counts of culpable homicide. Avoided trial, released on bail and freed in 2004. WALES: Joseph Kappen (1973; 3 victims) The Saturday Night Strangler Raped and strangled three young girls (one in February, and the other two in September). Although he was a convicted sex offender, there wasn't enough physical evidence to connect him to the crimes. More than a decade after his death, he was posthumosly linked to the crimes via his DNA. Wales' first documented SK. Died before he could be arrested. VATICAN CITY: None to my knowledge
submitted by HauntedSpy to serialkillers [link] [comments]


2020.08.31 17:43 oranT2 The Doors of Stone Extrapolation study: Part I: King Roderic, last king of the Visigoths

Alrighty, here we go. Before I start, I'd want to say hats off to Patrick Rothfuss. The man has done his research.
Furthermore, this doesn't point to anything conclusive, but I think it has some huge underlying connotations.
Without further ado...
We all know that KKC - the kingkiller chronicle, is a story about Kvothe recalling the events that have led him to present day, why he is Kote, why he's in the middle of Newarre (heh), and what has happened in the world to cause it to be in the state that's it's in. Hopefully, with historical/folklorish extrapolation, I can bring some of you closer to the truth behind what could happen in the Doors of Stone, and why we may not exactly need it to access such knowledge.
Part I: King Roderic, last king of the Visigoths
First, I'd like to bring us to the one and only King Roderic (spelled thusly so, just like Roderic Calanthis, King of Vintas), who, in actual history, reigned as one of the last Visigothic kings in the Iberian Penninsula. From a purely historical perspective, we have actually little to gain from him. But, I want to make a couple of points that history has gathered from him, and list them out.
  1. He was, and I quote
an extremely obscure figure about whom little can be said with certainty.
-- Wikipedia
On the wikipedia page on him, we even have a photo of an umayyad fresco, which looks like it's in pretty bad shape, showing him along with five other kings. The footnote on the picture says thus:
Roderic is the second figure, his face completely lost, with only the tip of his helmet and his robes being visible.[2]
-- Wikipedia (you can check out the picture and further information about King Roderic here): [ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roderic ]
So not only do we have little to nothing in terms of historical account on him, we also have a blanked out picture of him, standing along with five other kings (six kings in total) - Chandrian vibes anybody? (Referencing the storybook Kvothe finds in the Archives about the Chandrian, where it shows only a blank page and a Children's rhyme about them.)
  1. Furthermore, the page goes on to explain that Roderic's title was in dispute:
Roderic's election as king was disputed and he ruled only a part of Hispania with an opponent, Achila, ruling the rest.
-- Wikipedia
  1. Roderic came into power after issuing some kind of coup, and because of this, seemed to schism the land in two
According to the Chronicle of 754, Roderic "tumultuously [tumultuose] invaded the kingdom [regnum] with the encouragement of [or at the exhortation of] the senate [senatus]."[5][6] Historians have long debated the exact meaning of these words. What is generally recognised is that it was not a typical palace coup as had occurred on previous occasions, but rather a violent invasion of the palace which sharply divided the kingdom.
It is probably that the "invasion" was not from outside the kingdom; because the word regnum can refer to the office of the king, it is likely that Roderic merely usurped the throne.[6]
-- Wikipedia
  1. King Roderic issued war with Moorish Muslims and ultimately was unsuccessful, dying in the attempt
According to the Chronicle of 754, Roderic immediately upon securing his throne gathered a force to oppose the Arabs and Berbers (Mauri, whence the word "Moors"), who were raiding in the south of the Iberian peninsula and had destroyed many towns under Tariq ibn Ziyad and other Muslim generals.[8] While later Arabic sources make the conquest of Hispania a singular event undertaken at the orders of the governor Musa ibn Nosseyr of Ifriqiya, according to the Chronicle, which was written much nearer in date to the actual events, the Arabs began disorganised raids and undertook to conquer the peninsula only with the fortuitous death of Roderic and the collapse of the Visigothic nobility.
Paul the Deacon's Historia Langobardorum records that the Saracens invaded "all Hispania" from Septem (Ceuta).[14][15]
Roderic made several expeditions against the invaders before he was deserted by his troops and killed in battle in 711 or 712.[8] The Chronicle of 754 claims that some of the nobles who had accompanied Roderic on his last expedition did so out of "ambition for the kingdom", perhaps intending to allow him to die in battle so that they could secure the throne for one of themselves.[8] Whatever their intentions, most of them seem to have died in the battle as well.[8]
-- Wikipedia
  1. Most of what we DO know, historically, about Roderic, comes from a CHRONICLE, namely, the CHRONICLE of 754.
Okay, so now that I've lain out the historical revealings about our visigothic King, we can see a couple of connections between this Roderic, King in Hispania, and the Roderic Calanthis, King of Vintas. As I'm sure you can all connect the dots yourselves, I will list, in bullet points, all of the things we know about Roderic Calanthis, the King of Vintas:
The Calanthis family has ruled Vint since its founding, taking it from the Maer Alveron's ancestors.
-- https://kingkiller.fandom.com/wiki/Roderic_Calanthis
2.
The Maer indicates that he and the King are involved, to some degree, in a power struggle; the Maer refuses to even consider any woman the King has any influence over for a wife. This enmity extends into him offhandedly calling Roderic "a bastard."[8]
-- https://kingkiller.fandom.com/wiki/Roderic_Calanthis
3.
Sipquicks, or flits, are small, pretty nectar-feeding birds. The Eld Vintic term for a sipquick is "calanthis", which is also the surname of the royal family in Vintas. They are known for flitting from place to place.[1]
-- https://kingkiller.fandom.com/wiki/Sipquick
Little note on this last part, just something to keep in mind, particularly the "known for flitting from place to place" - remember the Chandrian rhyme:
The Chandrian move from place to place/But they never leave a trace.
  1. We know a king gets killed. Reference: The KINGKILLER Chronicle.
Now, I know this last point might be a bit redundant, but I really can't enforce the significance of the title for this series. A king gets killed. That's for sure. All I'm trying to do now is convince you that it's Roderic Calanthis, not Ambrose, not Sim, not the Maer.
Now that I've aligned what we mostly know about Roderic Calanthis and the historical account of King Roderic, I want to get into the legendary accounts, or tell-tale stories of this Visigothic king. Oh yes, this is where it gets really juicy.
(Side note: I've never really done this before (legit first time), so just hang tight with me, I might be all over the place with all of this information, so I appreciate it if you guys stick with me till the end.)
On the page detailing the historical account, we get to a subsection where it talks about the fabled accounts of this Visigothic king, and man, does it get intense. For this next part, I'll be connecting certain small thoughts I had along the way, instead of keeping the information more sparse.
  1. First, under the subtitle "In Legend and Literature," we get a saucy rumor that was accepted as fact:
According to a legend that was for centuries treated as historical fact, Roderic seduced or raped the daughter of Count Julian, known in late accounts as Florinda la Cava. This tale of romance and treachery has inspired many works.
-- Wikipedia ( https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roderic)
Now, I don't have the exact quotes or references to the book (if someone can help with that in the comments that'd be bomb), but if one can remember, who possibly was sexually harassed or possibly raped in the Chronicle and befriends Kvothe? Auri.
“I can tell you stories no one has ever heard before. Stories no one will ever hear again. Stories about Felurian, how I learned to fight from the Adem. The truth about Princess Ariel.” [...] “I know how this war started. I know the truth of it. Once you hear that, you won’t be nearly so eager to run off and die fighting in the middle of it.”
-- Kote, The Wise Man's Fear
Now, as much as I want to deep dive into each inspired work, I'd rather keep things concise, so what I'm going to do is post the links for the inspired works on wikipedia, and quote from them the most vital information I gathered from each inspired work that most pertains to the possible predicting events of the KKC for Book 3. After that, I'm going to try and make an argument for Calanthis being one of the Chandrian (not sure who exactly, perhaps Cinder) and, if so, by Kvothe killing him, he becomes the very thing he destroys. And if not that, then at least, the secret to killing one of the Chandrian, and why the Wise Man's Fear may not be the last time we see the Cthaeh.
1.
Don Roderick, camped outside of Toledo, ponders the outcome of his campaign against the Moors. After confession), he demands that the prelate lead him to a certain sealed chamber, known to be enchanted, which according to legend would reveal the future — but only to the "last" King of Spain.
When the chamber is opened, the king and prelate find themselves in a vast marble hall, with two giant bronze statues standing on either side. The left-hand giant carries a scythe and an hourglass, and the right-hand giant carries a mace. The hourglass runs out almost immediately after their entrance, and the other giant turns and demolishes the far wall with his mace, revealing a magic panorama.
The panorama depicts various phases in the future of Spain: first, the conquest by the Moors; second, the Spanish Inquisition; third, the conquest by Napoleon I of France, and the arrival of British forces to liberate the country. Such sweep fits with Scott's political agenda.[6]
-- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Vision_of_Don_Roderick
- Importance: Sealed Chamber = Four plate door. This extrapolated evidence can possibly lead to knowing what's behind it and who can possibly open it.
The story describes fighting over the inheritance of the Spanish throne and how Roderick manages to take over. After Roderick rapes Florinda, daughter of his important ally Count Julian, Julian and others change their allegiance and aid the invading Moorish army. During a battle against the Moors, Roderick is wounded and escapes to start a new life. Eventually, Roderick travels across Spain before determining that he must return to rescue Pelayo, an heir to the Spanish throne who was held prisoner by the Moors. After freeing Pelayo, he meets Florinda who reveals that her rape was not Roderick's fault. The group allies itself with Count Pedro, and they build an army to wage war against the Moors. While fighting, Count Julian is assassinated by his own allies, and the Moorish army is broken and defeated. The poem ends with Roderick returning to the wilderness.
-- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roderick_the_Last_of_the_Goths
Importance: I'm going to draw your eyes to Pelayo, who is described as an heir to the Spanish throne who was held prisoner by the Moors. This is vitally important. Make sure you remember this.
Okay, phew. That's a lot. The big thing here is to notice the scope of influence this all has had on the Kingkiller chronicles, what it COULD point to. So far, with the extrapolated evidence, we could make an argument that 1. King Roderic Calanthis gets killed, 2. It's initiated by his raping of Princess Ariel, 3. That if Princess Ariel is Auri, then Kvothe, somehow learning Auri's past, can possibly be the one who kills him.
While I do think extrapolated evidence gathered from possible inspirational sources is not a certain way of predicting things, it would be folly (heh) to deny the heft of influence the chronicles and legends of Roderic, king of the Visigoths had on the Kingkiller Chronicle.
Okay, part 1 done. Now onto part 2, which I will post later and which is arguably the more important part of the two. But, alas, as I am extremely tired and running on low hours of sleep, I am in need of rest.
Okay, so going back and reading part 1 feels a bit overexplained to me, so I'm going to try and mince and shorten my words in this part 2 to try and make a convincing argument that King Roderic Calanthis is one of the Chandrian, and by killing him, either Kvothe (or someone in a later volume in this narrative/world) replaces them as the new Chandrian. Stay tuned
submitted by oranT2 to kkcwhiteboard [link] [comments]


2020.08.31 02:53 Emperor-of-Chung-kuo HISTORIA PHILIPPINICA — Catalogue of Published Writings for the Month of August, 2020 A.D.

NOTICE: The site’s domain name has been changed from “historiaphil.wordpress.com” to “historiaph.wordpress.com” due to the fact that there is a French site with a similar address as the former.
Listed below are all the publications on Historia Philippinica, for the month of August, 2020 A.D., with their respective dates. A short description regarding each writing’s subject matter shall also be included.
JUL. 29 — The P’i-sia-ye, “Vikings of the Orient”.
Although published on the final days of July, methinks it is only fair to add it in the list, as it is the first article written for the site. Details the P’i-sia-ye raiders of Ts’uan-chou, Fuhkien hailing from Eastern Samar.
AUG. 7 — Project Kasaysayan update #1
On the creation of a subreddit for Proj. Kasaysayan — ProjectKasaysayan — and the scanning of Jean Mallat’s seminal work, entitled “The Philippines: History, Geography, Customs, Agriculture, Industry and Commerce of the Spanish Colonies in Oceania”.
Project Kasaysayan page.
AUG. 15 — Project Kasaysayan update #2 — Translation of “Filipinas Ante Europa”.
A translation of a publication named “Filipinas Ante Europa”, or “The Philippines Against Europe”, by one Tor Sagrado, with additional text provided by G.M. Barreto.
AUG. 23 — Notes on Pre-colonial Tagalog Culture, first half.
Based on Chapter III of Mallat’s “The Philippines...”.
AUG. 27 — Photos of “Old Manila”
From a book written by R.M. Zaragoza with the same name, part of Oxford University’s “Images of Asia” Series. Copy provided by Ma’am Nieves Edurise.
Support the site.
Regards, Gian.
EDIT: Whilst not in the range of the month of August, it is perhaps important for one to mention that the first scan done for Proj. Kasaysayan is L. Cachuela’s paper “Kalaon: The God of Destruction”, on late-July. u/Cheesetorian mentioned the deity’s linguistic connexion with a fire god from the Visayas, though one has not researched this yet.
submitted by Emperor-of-Chung-kuo to FilipinoHistory [link] [comments]


2020.08.30 05:22 Gridinad Galactica Historia – Oneshot

"Welcome to Galatica Historia, this semester will focus on previous galaxy spanning empires and similarities between them despite vast gulfs in time, biology and theology."
Began the instructor, a large avian biped with a round face and curved meat eating beak.
"I am Kir'willtrue and I will be your teacher for this course. I have taught and studied this subject for over a hundred [standard year]s. Today we will learn the very basic common knowledge and I will field any questions you chicks have about the subject."
The class of organics, constructs, and holographic avatars murmured and the class began.
Kir'willtrue began with, "The basic fact of Galactica Historia is that despite the many surface level differences, physiological differences and religion differences, all empires shared a plethora of traits."
Tapping the wall behind her, a vast table of blurred subjects became visible. One column resolved into view; Length of reign is has a constant value that can be applied to all empires. *This does not apply one empire
One insectoid raised a wing cover waiting to ask a question.
"Yes Guk'ix the Tunlak in the front row, what is your question?" Kir'willtrue asked.
She was expecting a statement of impossibility or question about how that had been found. She had an old physical note listing responses in either case. In preparation, she began to unfold it.
Asked the Tunlak, "Why is there an exemption?"
Kir'willtrue sighed, deflated. "That exemption is the one empire that has defied all rules and predictions we could make for other empires."
"Why?" buzzed the Tunlak.
"Because humans are the exception." Kir'willtrue said bitterly.
Unbidden, by the top left corner of the teaching wall, a tally appeared with dozens of marks. It had a title stating Humans are the exception!, and a date that was the previous class's starting day. The marks vanished, replaced by a solitary mark.
Kir'willtrue steamed ahead explaining the formula that had been discovered to predict how long an empire would last on the galactic scene. She ignored the blatant attempts to get her to explain the human exception. They had an entire unit dedicated to them. Besides, the last class hadn't gotten a mark on that infernal virus of a tally on day one!
———
Several one sixty fourth cycles later.
Kir'willtrue was a wreck. Her usual vibrant red plumage had lost its sheen and her robe rumpled. Slumped over her teaching station, she thought of her predicament. The last couple of six–fours had been disastrous. A few of the brighter students had looked up humans on the Gal-Net and had started to ask questions…
All those questions about why the human empire couldn't have its time of reign put into the formula that could be used for every other empire. Why is the formula taught if it isn't universal, was the data on the empires accurate and on and on. Her credibility to the class had tanked when she couldn't come up with an answer. The humans hadn't been culturally absorbed by another empire or defeated in conquests, they had voluntary dissolved after getting bored! Half of class didn't even show up anymore!
Just as she was musing on ending her career and mining rocks for the rest of her life, the college's technician came in. Gym was a small bipedal construct, and had been with the faculty since its creation. Some rumors surrounded him, saying he was from one of the ancient empires but no one gave them any stock.
"New students got you down again Mrs. Willtrue?" He asked.
Kir'willtrue moaned, "I am a laughing stock. If not for that damn abberation of an empire. Galactica Historia could predict the rise and fall of empires rather than be a simple elective class…"
Gym chuckled, "Easy there Seldon, predicting the future ain't nothing to joke about. Besides I know how to get those younguns to pay attention."
He walked to her side and whispered several things to Kir'willtrue. Her eyes lit up with a malicious glint.
"Thank you so much Mr. Gym, I know just how to make use of that!" Kir'willtrue trilled.
Feathers bristling she began to make a lesson plan. Gym looked at her, nodded and continued his maintenance work. A few minutes later, and after some small chat he left, whistling as he closed the door.
So far Mrs. Willtrue was very different from her predecessor, Gym thought. But not too different, after all no teacher or staff had ever thought to ask how he knew so much about humans, history or old machines. Besides, he knew they thought. Jim couldn't really have been with the college since it was created. It was nearly a full galactic cycle old.
But humans are the exception after all.
———
Inspired by this video
submitted by Gridinad to HFY [link] [comments]


2020.08.22 12:19 EnclavedMicrostate Tartaria: The Supposed Mega-Empire of Inner Eurasia

Introduction

For those not in the know, the Tartaria conspiracy theory is one of the most bizarre pieces of pseudo history out there. Its core notion is that the region known as ‘Tartaria’ or ‘Grand Tartary’ in Early Modern European maps was not simply a vague geographical designate, but in fact a vast, centralised empire. Said empire emerged… at some point, and it disappeared… at some point, but for… some reason, its existence has been covered up to suit… some narrative or another. As you can tell, there’s a lot of diverse ideas here, and the fact that there hasn’t been the equivalent of a Christological schism every time a controversial thread goes up is really quite impressive. While this post will primarily address one particular piece of writing that is at the core of Tartaria conspiracy theorising, I’ll include a few tidbits to show you just how much madness its adherents have come up with. But first, some background.

State of Play, and why I’m doing this

The Tartaria theory has a small but active following on subreddits such as Tartaria, tartarianarchitecture, and CulturalLayer, which as of writing have around 5,300, 2,400 and 23,000 subscribers, respectively, but it’s clear from the 8 questions on the topic asked at AskHistorians since January 2019 and this debunk request from June that it’s a theory that has somewhat broad appeal and can reach beyond its core niche. This is unsurprising given how little education most people in the West receive about basically anything east of Greece: simply put, the reality of Eurasian history is just not something most of us are taught. And if we don’t know the reality of Eurasian history to begin with, or if we do then it's all in bits and pieces where we might not even know a basic set of dates and names, then what seems to be a pretty developed narrative about a lost empire actually turns out rather plausible.
Unfortunately, many debunks of the Tartaria narrative come from people pushing competing conspiracy theories, like this guy claiming that there’s a global Jewish Phoenecian conspiracy and that Tartaria is simply rehashing the notion that Khazars were Jews in order to distract from the real Phoenecian threat at the heart of global society or some nonsense like that. (I don’t really care, I died of laughter after page 3.) Now, there are those coming from serious perspectives, but they focus largely on the problems with Tartaria as a concept rather than addressing the more specific claims being made. This is of course valuable in its own right (shoutout to Kochevnik81 for their responses to the AskHistorians threads), but we can go deeper by really striking at the roots of this ‘theory’ – what is the ‘evidence’ they’re presenting? But to do that, we need to find out what the origins of the ‘theory' are, and thus what its linchpins are. Incidentally, it is because of some recent events regarding those origins that I’ve been finally prompted to write this post.

Where does it come from?

My attempts to find the exact origins of the Tartaria conspiracy have been not entirely fruitful, as the connections I’ve found have been relatively circumstantial at best. But as far as I can tell, it at least partially originates with that Russian pseudohistorian we all know and love, Anatoly Fomenko. Fomenko is perhaps best known in the English-speaking world for his 7-volume ‘epic’ from 2002, History: Fiction or Science?, but in fact he’s been pushing a complete ‘New Chronology’ since the publication of Novaia khronologia in Russian in 1995. While the New Chronology is best known for its attempt to explain away most of the Middle Ages as a hoax created by the Papacy on the basis of bad astronomy, it also asserts a number of things about Russian history from the Kievan Rus’ to the Romanovs. Key to the Tartaria theory is its claim that there was a vast Slavo-Turkic ‘Russian Horde’ based out of ‘Tartaria’ which dominated Eurasia until the last ‘Horde’ ruler, Boris Godunov, was overthrown by the European Mikhail Romanov. This, of course, is a clear attempt at countering the notion of a ‘Tatar Yoke’ over Russia, as you can’t have a ‘Tatar Yoke’ if the Tatars were Russians all along. Much as I’d like to explain that in more detail here, I don’t have to: in 2004, Konstantin Sheiko at the University of Wollongong wrote an entire PhD thesis looking at the claims of Fomenko’s New Chronology and contextualising them within currents of Russian nationalism, which can be accessed online.
But I personally suspect that if there are Fomenko connections as far as Tartaria specifically is concerned, they are limited. For one, at one stage users on the Tartaria subreddit seemed unfamiliar with Fomenko, and there are those arguing that Fomenko had ‘rewritten’ Tartarian history to be pro-Russian. This is why I said that the evidence was circumstantial. The only other link to Fomenko is indirect: the CulturalLayer sidebar lists the ‘New Chronology Resource Collection’ and the audiobook of History: Fiction or Science? under ‘Essential Resources’, and Tartaria in its ‘Related Subs’.
As far as I can tell, the ultimate origin of its developed form on the Anglophone web traces back to this post on the StolenHistory forums, posted on 17 April 2018. This makes some chronological sense: only one post on CulturalLayer that mentions Tartaria predates this. Moreover, KorbenDallas, the OP of the thread, was also the forum’s chief admin, and given that StolenHistory is still (as of writing) the top resource on CulturalLayer’s sidebar, that suggests significant influence. However, using the search function on camas.reddit.io, it was mentioned at least 9 times before then, with the first mention, on 10 January 2018, mentioning that the ‘theory’ had been doing the rounds on the Russian web for at least 5 years. Nevertheless, as the detail in these early comments is sparse and generally refers only to speculation about maps, it is probably fair to say that the first in-depth English-language formulation of the Tartaria ‘theory’ was thus the April 2018 forum post. Funnily enough, it is not cited often on Tartaria, but that subreddit was created on 27 December, long after discussion had been taking place on places like CulturalLayer, and combined with the ‘mudflood’ ‘theory’ and the notion of giant humans, which are not significant features of the StolenHistory thread. This more convoluted and multifaceted version of the Tartaria theory doesn’t really have a single-document articulation, hence me not covering it here.
It is this StolenHistory thread which I will be looking at here today. Not just because it seems to be at the heart of it all, but also because it got shut down around 36 hours ago as of writing this post, based on the timestamps of panicked ‘what happened to StolenHistory’ posts on CulturalLayer and Tartaria. So what better occasion to go back to the Wayback Machine’s version, seeing as it’s now quite literally impossible to brigade the source? Now as I’ve said, this is not the most batshit insane it gets for the Tartaria crowd, in fact it’s incredibly tame. But by the end of it, I bet you’ll be thinking ‘if this is mild, how much more worse is the modern stuff!?’ And the best part is, I can debunk most of it without recourse to any other sources at all, because so much of it involves them posting sources out of context or expecting them to be read tendentiously.
But that’s enough background. Let us begin.

Part 1: The Existence

Exhibit 1: The Encylcopædia Britannica, 1771

”Tartary, a vast country in the northern parts of Asia, bounded by Siberia on the north and west: this is called Great Tartary. The Tartars who lie south of Muscovy and Siberia, are those of Astracan, Circassia, and Dagistan, situated north-west of the Caspian-sea; the Calmuc Tartars, who lie between Siberia and the Caspian-sea; the Usbec Tartars and Moguls, who lie north of Persia and India; and lastly, those of Tibet, who lie north-west of China.” - Encyclopædia Britannica, Vol. III, Edinburgh, 1771, p. 887.
Starting a post about the ‘hidden’ history of Central Asia with an encyclopædia entry from Scotland is really getting off to a good start, isn’t it? Anyone with a sense of basic geography can tell you that Tibet lies due west of China, not northwest. But more importantly, this shows you how single-minded the Tartaria advocates are and how tendentiously they read things. ‘Country’ need not actually refer to a state entity, it can just be a geographical space, especially in more archaic contexts such as this. Moreover, the ethnographic division of the ‘Tartars’ into Astrakhanis, Circassians, Dagestanis, Kalmuks, Uzbeks, and, for whatever reason, Tibetans, pretty clearly goes against the notion of a unified Tartary.
Now compare to the description given by Wikipedia, ”Tartary (Latin: Tartaria) or Great Tartary (Latin: Tartaria Magna) was a name used from the Middle Ages until the twentieth century to designate the great tract of northern and central Asia stretching from the Caspian Sea and the Ural Mountains to the Pacific Ocean, settled mostly by Turko-Mongol peoples after the Mongol invasion and the subsequent Turkic migrations.”
Obviously, Wikipedia is not a good source for… anything, really, but the fact that they’re giving a 349-year-old encyclopaedia primacy over the summary sentence of a wiki article is demonstrative of how much dishonesty is behind this. And it only gets worse from here.

Exhibit 2: Hermann Moll’s A System of Geography, 1701

THE Country of Tartary, call'd Great Tartary, to distinguish it from the Lesser, in Europe, has for its Boundaries, on the West, the Caspian Sea, and Moscovitick Tartary; on the North, the Scythian, or Tartarian Sea; on the East, the Sea of the Kalmachites, and the Straight of Jesso; and on the South, China, India, or the Dominions of the great Mogul and Persia : So that it is apparently the largest Region of the whole Continent of Asia, extending it self [sic] farthest, both towards the North and East: In the modern Maps, it is plac'd within the 70th and 170th Degree of Longitude, excluding Muscovitick Tartary; as also between the 40 and 72 Degree of Northern Latitude.
Immediately underneath the scan of this text is the statement, clearly highlighted, that
Tartary was not a tract. It was a country.
Hmm, very emphatic there. Except wait no, the same semantic problem recurs. ‘Country’ need not mean ‘state’. Moreover, in the very same paragraph, Moll (or rather his translator) refers to Tartary as a ‘Region’, which very much disambiguates the idea. Aside from that, it is telling that Moll refers to three distinct ‘Tartaries’: ’Great Tartary’ in Asia, ‘Lesser Tartary’ in Europe, and ‘Muscovite Tartary’ – that is, the eastern territories of the Russian Tsardom. If, as they are saying, ‘Great Tartary’ was a coherent entity, whatever happened to ‘Lesser Tartary’?

Exhibit 3: A 1957 report by the CIA on ‘National Cultural Development Under Communism’

Is a conspiracy theorist… actually believing a CIA document? Yep. I’ll add some context later that further complicates the issue.
Or let us take the matter of history, which, along with religion, language and literature, constitute the core of a people’s cultural heritage. Here again the Communists have interfered in a shameless manner. For example, on 9 August 1944, the Central Committee of the Communist Party, sitting in Moscow, issued a directive ordering the party’s Tartar Provincial Committee “to proceed to a scientific revolution of the history of Tartaria, to liquidate serious shortcomings and mistakes of a nationalistic character committed by individual writers and historians in dealing with Tartar history.” In other words, Tartar history was to be rewritten—let its be frank, was to be falsified—in order to eliminate references to Great Russian aggressions and to hide the facts of the real course of Tartar-Russian relations.
[similar judgement on Soviet rewriting of histories of Muslim areas to suit a pro-Russian agenda]
What’s fascinating about the inclusion of this document is that it is apparently often invoked as a piece of anti-Fomenko evidence, by tying New Chronology in with older Russian-nationalist Soviet revisionism. So not only is it ironic that they’re citing a CIA document, of all things, but a CIA document often used to undermine the spiritual founder of the whole Tartaria ‘theory’ in the first place! But to return to the point, the fundamental issue is that it’s tendentious. This document from 1957 obviously is not going to be that informed on the dynamics of Central Asian ethnicity and history in the way that a modern scholar would be.
In a broader sense, what this document is supposed to prove is that Soviet coverups are why we don’t know about Tartaria. But if most of the evidence came from Western Europe to begin with, why would a Soviet coverup matter? Why wasn’t Tartarian history deployed as a counter-narrative during the Cold War?

Exhibit 4: ‘An 1855 Source’

This is from a footnote in Sir George Cornwalle Lewis’ An Inquiry into the Credibility of the Early Roman History, citing a travelogue by Evariste Huc that had been published in French in 1850 and was soon translated into English. From the digitised version of of Huc’s book on Project Gutenberg (emphasis copied over from the thread):
Such remains of ancient cities are of no unfrequent occurrence in the deserts of Mongolia; but everything connected with their origin and history is buried in darkness. Oh, with what sadness does such a spectacle fill the soul! The ruins of Greece, the superb remains of Egypt,—all these, it is true, tell of death; all belong to the past; yet when you gaze upon them, you know what they are; you can retrace, in memory, the revolutions which have occasioned the ruins and the decay of the country around them. Descend into the tomb, wherein was buried alive the city of Herculaneum,—you find there, it is true, a gigantic skeleton, but you have within you historical associations wherewith to galvanize it. But of these old abandoned cities of Tartary, not a tradition remains; they are tombs without an epitaph, amid solitude and silence, uninterrupted except when the wandering Tartars halt, for a while, within the ruined enclosures, because there the pastures are richer and more abundant.
There’s a paraphrase from Lewis as well, but you can just read it on the thread. The key thing here is that yes, there were abandoned settlements in the steppe. Why must this be indicative of a lost sedentary civilisation, and not instead the remnants of political capitals of steppe federations which were abandoned following those federations’ collapse? Places like Karakorum, Kubak Zar, Almaliq and Sarai were principally built around political functions, being centres for concentration of religious and ritual authority (especially monasteries) and stores of non-movable (or difficult to move) wealth. But individual examples of abandoned settlements are not evidence of broad patterns of settlement that came to be abandoned en masse. Indeed, the very fact that the cited shepherd calls the abandoned location ‘The Old Town’ in the singular implies just how uncommon such sites were – for any given region, there might really only be one of note.

Exhibit 5: Ethnic characteristics in artistic depictions of Chinggis and Timur

I… don’t quite know what to make of these.
Today, we have certain appearance related stereotypes. I think we are very much off there. It looks like Tartary was multi-religious, and multi-cultural. One of the reasons I think so is the tremendous disparity between what leaders like Genghis Khan, Batu Khan, Timur aka Tamerlane looked like to the contemporary artists vs. the appearance attributed to them today.
Ummm, what?
These are apparently what they look like today. These are ‘contemporary’ depictions of Chinggis:
Except, as the guy posting the thread says, these are 15th-18th century depictions… so NOT CONTEMPORARY.
As for Timur, we have:
In what bizzaro world are these contemporary?
We’ll get to Batur Khan in a moment because that’s its own kettle of worms. But can this user not recognise that artists tend to depict things in ways that are familiar? Of course white European depictions of Chinggis and Timur will tend to make them look like white Europeans, while East Asian depictions of Chinggis will tend to make him look Asian, and Middle Eastern depictions of Chinggis and Timur will make them look Middle Eastern. This doesn’t prove that ‘Tartaria’ was multicultural, in fact it you’d have an easier time using this ‘evidence’ to argue that Chinggis and Timur were shapeshifters who could change ethnicities at will!

Exhibit 6: Turkish sculptures

Why this person thinks modern Turkish sculptures are of any use to anyone baffles me. The seven sculptures shown are of Batu Khan (founder of the ‘Golden Horde’/Jochid khanates), Timur, Bumin (founder of the First Turkic Khaganate), Ertugrul (father of Osman, the founder of the Ottoman empire), Babur (founder of the Mughal Empire), Attila the Hun, and Kutlug Bilge Khagan (founder of the Uyghur Khaganate). They are accompanied (except in the case of Ertugrul) by the dates of the empires/confederations that they founded – hence, for instance, Babur’s dates being 1526 to 1858, the lifespan of the Mughal Empire, or Timur’s being 1368 (which seems arbitrary) to 1507 (the fall of Herat to the Shaybanids). To quote the thread:
A few of them I do not know, but the ones I do look nothing like what I was taught at school. Also dates are super bizarre on those plaques.
Again, Turkish sculptors make Turkic people look like Turks. Big surprise. And the dates are comprehensible if you just take a moment to think.
Do Turks know something we don't?
Turkish, evidently.

Exhibit 7: A map from 1652 that the user can’t even read

The other reason why I think Tartary had to be multi-religious, and multi-cultural is its vastness during various moments in time. For example in 1652 Tartary appears to have control over the North America.
https://web.archive.org/web/20200701065421im_/https://www.stolenhistory.org/attachments/1652-nova-totius-terrarum-orbis-geographica-ac-hydrographica-tabula_1-1-jpg.37277/
This speaks for itself.
The thread was later edited to include a link to a post on ‘Tartarians’ in North America made on 7 August 2018, but that’s beside the point here, read at your own leisure (if you can call it ‘leisure’). Except for the part where at one point he admits he can’t read Latin, and so his entire theory in that post is based on the appearance of the word ‘Tartarorum’ in an unspecified context on a map of North America.

Part 2: The Coverup

The official history is hiding a major world power which existed as late as the 19th century. Tartary was a country with its own flag, its own government and its own place on the map. Its territory was huge, but somehow quietly incorporated into Russia, and some other countries. This country you can find on the maps predating the second half of the 19th century.
…Okay then.

Exhibit 8: Google Ngrams

https://web.archive.org/web/20200701065421im_/https://www.stolenhistory.org/attachments/tartary_ngram-jpg.37276/
This screenshot shows that the use of ‘Tartary’ and ‘Tartaria’ declined significantly over time. This is apparently supposed to surprise us. Or maybe it shows that we actually understand the region better…

Part 1a: Back to the existence

You know, a common theme with historical conspiracy theories is how badly they’re laid out, in the literal sense of the layout of their documents and video content. Don’t make a header called ‘The Coverup’ and then only have one thing before jumping back to the evidence for the existence again.

Exhibit 9: A Table

Yet, some time in the 18th century Tartary Muskovite was the biggest country in the world: 3,050,000 square miles.
https://web.archive.org/web/20200701065421im_/https://www.stolenhistory.org/attachments/tartary_huge-13-jpg.37329/
I do not have enough palms to slap into my face. Do they not understand that this is saying how much of Tartary was owned… by foreign powers?

Exhibit 10: Book covers

You can look at the images on the thread itself but here’s a few highlights:
Histories of the Qing conquest of China, because as far as Europeans were concerned the Manchus were Tartars. Proof of Tartaria because…?
An ambassador who never set foot in ‘Tartary’ itself, cool cool, very good evidence there.
There’s also three screenshots from books that aren’t even specifically named, so impossible to follow up. Clearly this is all we need.

Exhibit 11: Maps

The maps are the key think the Tartaria pushers use. All these maps showing ‘Grand Tartary’ or ‘Tartaria’ or what have you. There’s 20 of these here and you can look for yourselves, but the key thing is: why do these people assume that this referred to a single state entity? Because any of these maps that include the world more generally will also present large parts of Africa in generic terms, irrespective of actual political organisation in these regions. And many of the later maps clearly show the tripartite division of the region into ‘Chinese Tartary’, ‘Russian Tartary’, and ‘Independent Tartary’, which you think would be clear evidence that most of this region was controlled by, well, the Chinese (really, the Manchus) and the Russians. And many of these maps aren’t even maps of political organisation, but geographical space. See how many lump all of mainland Southeast Asia into ‘India’. Moreover, the poor quality of the mapping should give things away. This one for instance is very clear on the Black Sea coast, but the Caspian is a blob, and moreover, a blob that’s elongated along the wrong axis! They’re using Western European maps as an indicator of Central Asian realities in the most inept way possible, and it would be sad if it weren’t so hilarious. The fact that the depictions of the size of Tartaria are incredibly inconsistent also seems not to matter.

Exhibit 12: The Tartarian Language

There’s an 1849 American newspaper article referring to the ‘Tartarian’ language, which is very useful thank you, and definitely not more reflective of American ignorance than actual linguistic reality.
The next one is more interesting, because it’s from a translation of some writing by a French Jesuit, referring to the writing of Manchu, and who asserted (with very little clear evidence) that it could be read in any direction. In April last year, Tartaria users [claimed to have stumbled on a dictionary of Tartarian and French](np.reddit.com/Tartaria/comments/bi3aph/tartarian_language_dictionary/) called the Dictionnaire Tartare-Mantchou-François. What they failed to realise is that the French generally called the Manchus ‘Tartare-Mantchou’, and this was in fact a Manchu-French dictionary. In other words, a [Tartare-Mantchou]-[François] dictionary, not a [Tartare]-[Mantchou]-[François] dictionary. It is quite plausible, in fact probable, that the ‘Tartarian’ referred to in the newspaper article was Manchu.

Exhibit 13: Genealogies of Tartarian Kings

Descended From Genghiscan
Reads the comment above this French chart. How the actual hell did OP not recognise that ‘Genghiscan’ is, erm, Genghis Khan? Is it that hard to understand that maybe, just maybe, ‘Tartars’ was what they called Mongols back in the day, and ‘Tartaria’ the Mongol empire and its remnants?

Exhibit 14: Ethnographic drawings

These prove that there were people called Tartars, not that there was a state of Tartaria. NEXT

Exhibit 15: Tartaria’s alleged flag

Images they provide include
https://web.archive.org/web/20200701065421im_/https://www.stolenhistory.org/attachments/tartary_flags-11-jpg.37367/
https://web.archive.org/web/20200701065421im_/https://www.stolenhistory.org/attachments/tartary_flag_6-jpg.37307/
Except there’s one problem. As any EU4 player will tell you, that’s the flag of the Khanate of Kazan. And while they can trot out a few 18th and 19th century charts showing the apparent existence of a Tartarian naval flag, the inconvenient fact that Tartaria would have been landlocked seems not to get in the way. To be sure, their consistent inclusion is odd, given the non-existence of Tartary as a country, and moreover its landlocked status. It seems plausible that the consistent similarity of the designs is just a result of constant copying and poor checking, but on its own it means relatively little.

Exhibit 16: 19th-century racism

https://web.archive.org/web/20200701065421im_/https://www.stolenhistory.org/attachments/flags_of_all_nations_1865-mongolian-1-jpg.37369/
That I think speaks for itself.

Exhibit 17: Flags of Moscow on one particular chart

It is also worth mentioning that in the British Flag Table of 1783, there are three different flags listed as a flag of the Tsar of Moscow. There is also an Imperial Flag of Russia as well as multiple naval flags. And all of them are proceeded by a flag of the Viceroy of Russia.
By that logic, the Royal Navy ran Britain because the Royal Navy ensigns precede the Union Jack. It’s simply a conscious decision to show the flags of individuals before the flags of states. The ‘Viceroy’ (unsure what the original Russian title would be) and ‘Czar’ of Muscovy would presumably be, well, the Emperor of Russia anyway, so as with the British section where the Royal Standard and the flags of naval officers came first, the same seems true of Russia. Also, as a side note, the placement of the USA at the end, after the Persians, the Mughals and ‘Tartarians’, is a fun touch.
Significance of the Viceroy is in the definition of the term. A viceroy is a regal official who runs a country, colony, city, province, or sub-national state, in the name of and as the representative of the monarch of the territory. Our official history will probably say that it was the Tsar of Russia who would appoint a viceroy of Moscow. I have reasons to doubt that.
Why is the flag of the Viceroy of Moscow positioned prior to any other Russian flag? Could it be that the Viceroy of Moscow was superior to its Czar, and was "supervising" how this Tartarian possession was being run?
No.

Part 3: 1812

This, this is where it gets really bonkers. A key part of this post is arguing that Napoleon’s invasion of Russia was a cover story for a joint invasion against Tartaria gone horrendously wrong. All the stops are being pulled out here.
There is a growing opinion in Russia that French invasion of Russia played out according to a different scenario. The one where Tsar Alexander I, and Napoleon were on the same side. Together they fought against Tartary. Essentially France and Saint Petersburg against Moscow (Tartary). And there is a strong circumstantial evidence to support such a theory.
Oh yes, we’re going there.
Questions to Answer:
1. Saint Petersburg was the capitol of Russia. Yet Napoleon chose to attack Moscow. Why?
He didn’t, he was trying to attack the Russian army. (credit to dandan_noodles).
2. It appears that in 1912 there was a totally different recollection of the events of 1812. How else could you explain commemorative 1912 medals honoring Napoleon?
Because it’s a bit of an in-your-face to Napoleon for losing so badly?
And specifically the one with Alexander I, and Napoleon on the same medal. The below medal says something similar to, "Strength is in the unity: will of God, firmness of royalty, love for homeland and people"
Yeah, it’s showing Alexander I beating Napoleon, and a triumphant double-headed Russian eagle above captured French standards. Also, notice how Alexander is in full regalia, while Napoleon’s is covered up by his greatcoat?
3. Similarity between Russian and French uniforms. There are more different uniforms involved, but the idea remains, they were ridiculously similar.
Ah yes, because fashions in different countries always develop separately, and never get influenced by each other.
How did they fight each other in the dark?
With difficulty, presumably.
Basically, he’s saying that this: https://web.archive.org/web/20200701065421im_/https://www.stolenhistory.org/attachments/1_rus-jpg.37322/
Is too similar to this: https://web.archive.org/web/20200701065421im_/https://www.stolenhistory.org/attachments/1_rus-jpg.37322/
To be coincidental.
OK, whatever. Here’s where it gets interesting:
There was one additional combat asset officially available to Russians in the war of 1812. And that was the Militia. It does appear that this so-called Militia, was in reality the army of Tartary fighting against Napoleon and Alexander I.
Russian VolunteeMilitia Units... Tartarians?
Clearly this man has never encountered the concept of a cossack, an opelchenie, or, erm, a GREATCOAT.
4. Russian nobility in Saint Petersburg spoke French well into the second half of the 19th century. The general explanation was, that it was the trend of time and fashion. Google contains multiple opinions on the matter. * Following the same logic, USA, Britain and Russia should've picked up German after the victory in WW2.
Clearly never heard of the term lingua franca then.
5. This one I just ran into: 19th-century fans were totally into a Napoleon/Alexander romance
https://web.archive.org/web/20200701065421im_/https://www.stolenhistory.org/attachments/treaties_of_tilsit_miniature_-france-_1810s-_side_a-jpg.37314/
https://web.archive.org/web/20200701065421im_/https://www.stolenhistory.org/attachments/napoleonxalexander2-jpg.37310/
https://web.archive.org/web/20200701065421im_/https://www.stolenhistory.org/attachments/napoleon-alexander-jpg.37312/
It is true that after the Treaty of Tilsit, Napoleon wrote to his wife, Josephine, that
I am pleased with [Emperor] Alexander; he ought to be with me. If he were a woman, I think I should make him my mistress.
But Napoleon’s ‘honeymoon period’ with Russia following the Treaty of Tilsit should not be seen as indicative of a permanent Napoleonic affection for Russia. Notably, Napoleon’s war with Russia didn’t just end in 1812. How are the Tartaria conspiracists going to explain the War of the Sixth Coalition, when Russian, Prussian and Austrian troops drove the French out of Germany? Did the bromance suddenly stop because of 1812? Or, is it more reasonable to see 1812 as the end result of the bromance falling apart?

Conclusions

So there you have it, Tartaria in all its glorious nonsensicalness. Words cannot capture how massively bonkers this entire thing is. And best of all, I hardly needed my own sources because so much of it is just a demonstration of terrible reading comprehension. Still, if you want to actually learn about some of the history of Inner Eurasia, see below:

Bibliography

submitted by EnclavedMicrostate to badhistory [link] [comments]


2020.08.21 22:50 CindyMorrisonwatts1 {Discussion} Understanding Excalibur; the Sword of Power

{Discussion} Understanding Excalibur; the Sword of Power

Understanding Excalibur; the Sword of Power

https://preview.redd.it/q3fd7ug79fi51.png?width=1280&format=png&auto=webp&s=19a0fe1046c82118bf9d9e39dd303bcde5be3b28
Excalibur, in Arthurian legend, King Arthur’s sword. As a boy, Arthur alone was able to draw the sword out of a stone in which it had been magically fixed.
This account is contained in Sir Thomas Malory’s 15th-century prose rendering of the Arthurian legend, but another story in the same work suggests that it was given to Arthur by the Lady of the Lake and that, when the king lay mortally wounded after his last battle, he ordered the faithful Sir Bedivere to go to the water and throw the sword into it. An arm rose to catch it, brandished Excalibur three times, and then disappeared.
Sir Bedivere returning Excalibur, Arthur's sword, to the lake from which it came, illustration by Aubrey Beardsley for an edition of Sir Thomas Malory's Le Morte Darthur.
There was a famous sword in Irish legend called Caladbolg, from which Excalibur is evidently derived by way of Geoffrey of Monmouth, whose Historia regum Britanniae refers to Arthur’s sword as Caliburn. Malory says that Excalibur means “cut-steel.”

https://preview.redd.it/33jg7qng5fi51.png?width=800&format=png&auto=webp&s=8f9442f5a9b6103417e53db5a35bcc3b42fef593
YouTube video: The Sword Excalibur The Truth Behindhttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sAqb8XHGezI
Arthurian legend, the body of stories and medieval romances, known as the matter of Britain, centring on the legendary king Arthur. Medieval writers, especially the French, variously treated stories of Arthur’s birth, the adventures of his knights, and the adulterous love between his knight Sir Lancelot and his queen, Guinevere. This last situation and the quest for the Holy Grail (the vessel used by Christ at the Last Supper and given to Joseph of Arimathea) brought about the dissolution of the knightly fellowship, the death of Arthur, and the destruction of his kingdom.
Stories about Arthur and his court had been popular in Wales before the 11th century; European fame came through Geoffrey of Monmouth’s Historia regum Britanniae (1135–38), celebrating a glorious and triumphant king who defeated a Roman army in eastern France but was mortally wounded in battle during a rebellion at home led by his nephew Mordred. Some features of Geoffrey’s story were marvelous fabrications, and certain features of the Celtic stories were adapted to suit feudal times.
The concept of Arthur as a world conqueror was clearly inspired by legends surrounding great leaders such as Alexander the Great and Charlemagne. Later writers, notably Wace of Jersey and Lawamon, filled out certain details, especially in connection with Arthur’s knightly fellowship (the Knights of the Round Table).
Using Celtic sources, Chrétien de Troyes in the late 12th century made Arthur the ruler of a realm of marvels in five romances of adventure. He also introduced the themes of the Grail and the love of Lancelot and Guinevere into Arthurian legend. Prose romances of the 13th century explored these major themes further. An early prose romance centring on Lancelot seems to have become the kernel of a cyclic work known as the Prose Lancelot, or Vulgate cycle (c. 1225).
https://preview.redd.it/qv502sus5fi51.png?width=1000&format=png&auto=webp&s=04322390e804ef1e69a702b394a0329c0e5d680a
Excalibur is the sword of King Arthur in Sir Thomas Malory's iconic work Le Morte D'Arthur published in in 1485 CE. The sword was originally introduced in Geoffrey of Monmouth's History of the Kings of Britain (1136 CE) as Caliburnus (or Caliburn) and further developed by later writers before Malory immortalized it in his work. The sword, from its first appearance, is a powerful weapon in the hands of a skilled warrior and retains that reputation in every story which features it.
https://preview.redd.it/d8zwdskv5fi51.png?width=1200&format=png&auto=webp&s=d4b911c084a175d7ab1f3d9d5137a48b4530a502
As with many other magical or powerful swords in legend or mythology, it is identified with a single hero and should not be allowed to fall into the hands of an enemy owing to its inherent power. In the case of Excalibur, when Arthur is dying of his wounds following his battle with Mordred, it must be returned to its source, the Lady of the Lake, rather than being entrusted to whichever knight - no matter how noble - might succeed Arthur as king.
This rule does not always hold true in every version of the legend, however. In the poem Conte du Graal, Provencal poet Chretien de Troyes (c. 1130 - c. 1190 CE) makes Excalibur (called Escalibor) Sir Gawain's weapon. In the Vulgate Cycle (1215-1235 CE) and the Post-Vulgate Cycle (c. 1240-1250 CE) Arthur presents Gawain with Excalibur who then loans it to Lancelot for his defense of Guinevere. Gawain then returns the sword to Arthur for his final battle with Mordred and, afterwards, it must be returned to the Lady of the Lake.
https://preview.redd.it/uibmu9j26fi51.png?width=650&format=png&auto=webp&s=85d67655a50ff39a9c6e67a40383243b36dd1907
Swords in Mythology
The concept of a "sword of power" did not originate with the Arthurian legend. Greek mythology mentions a number of magical swords and, especially, the harpe used by the titan Cronos to overthrow his father Uranus. Julius Caesar's sword, the Crocea Mors was supposed to have supernatural powers as was the Sword of Mars wielded by Attila the Hun. The Gianjiang and Moye swords of the Chinese Spring and Autumn Period are also supposed to have been imbued with great power by their makers.
https://preview.redd.it/yv5jm3o56fi51.png?width=417&format=png&auto=webp&s=f890b388edaecf6ed8da2dd4f0d9f87ff42dfff2
EXCALIBUR IS FREQUENTLY ASSOCIATED WITH ANOTHER ARTHURIAN MOTIF, THE SWORD IN THE STONE, BUT THESE ARE ACTUALLY TWO DIFFERENT SWORDS.
In the biblical Book of Genesis, after the Fall of Man, God sets his cherubim to stand watch to the east of the Garden of Eden along with a flaming sword "which turned every way" to prevent Adam and Eve from returning. The Shinto storm god Susanoo finds a magical sword in the tail of a dragon and this eventually became part of the Japanese imperial regalia.
https://preview.redd.it/o3i02c986fi51.png?width=600&format=png&auto=webp&s=4b178bbfa8c40b28db4b6274e70f3eff9dbee122
Norse mythology frequently makes use of magic swords, such as Gram, the weapon of Sigmund and his son Sigurd and the Celts wove a number of magical swords into their tales, including the Claiomh Solais (kleeve sollish), the Sword of Light which triumphs over darkness. The 11th century CE Spanish hero El Cid was claimed to have two magic swords and the 8th century CE French champion Roland wielded his famous blade Durendal and fell with it defending the Pass of Roncevaux in the epic Song of Roland.
https://preview.redd.it/9oudacec6fi51.png?width=2048&format=png&auto=webp&s=adf20a62df304149674a8e18358e2bac092b4201
Although there are these precedents for earlier magical or supernaturally powerful swords, Excalibur is arguably the most famous. It is frequently associated with another Arthurian motif, the Sword in the Stone, but these are actually two different swords.
In some versions of the legend, the Sword in the Stone is broken in Arthur's first battle and is replaced by Excalibur while, in others, the Sword in the Stone substantiates Arthur's right to rule (as only he can draw the blade from the rock) as the son and successor of Uther Pendragon while Excalibur serves as a symbol of his power as king.
https://preview.redd.it/v9hpr36g6fi51.png?width=800&format=png&auto=webp&s=ae4ee339d5d1063f39fc8e618c2ab777c93d8197
THE FAMOUS NAME & ORIGIN
The name Excalibur may originate in the work Culhwch and Olwen from the Mabinogion, a collection of Welsh legends, if one accepts a date of composition as c. 1100 CE. The Mabinogion only exists in manuscripts from the 13th and 14th centuries, however, and some scholars date it at 1200 CE. In this tale Arthur's sword is called Caledvwich which derives from the Latin chalybs ("steel" or "iron") and means "hard cleft".
Caledvwich as the name for a sword of power most likely comes from the mythological Irish blade Caladbolg (which means "voracious") carried by the king Fergus mac Roich in the Ulster Cycle of Irish mythology.
https://preview.redd.it/fg9r7jb65fi51.png?width=399&format=png&auto=webp&s=471dce6603eef03aa5c7b5d8d4823b1447f4475b
Geoffrey of Monmouth calls Arthur's sword Caliburnus in Medieval Latin which is a more direct use of the Latin chalybs as "steel" but denotes a particularly hard or effective blade. Essentially, by the time Geoffrey was writing, the name of Arthur's blade would be understood as "famous sword" or "great sword" because of the earlier associations of chalybs with mythological weapons.
The French poet Wace (c. 1110-1174 CE) translated Geoffrey's work into Old French vernacular and re-named the sword Chaliburn. Chretien de Troyes changed the name to Escalibor. When the Arthurian legend was translated into English, Chaliburn/Escalibor became Excalibur.
Malory, drawing on the Vulgate Cycle, calls Arthur's sword Excalibur shortly after Arthur has found and drawn the Sword in the Stone, linking the name with that weapon, and this association has stuck.
Later, however, once this first sword is broken in battle, it is made clear that Arthur must receive the "true Excalibur" from a mystical source, the Lady of the Lake, and Merlin (who seems to be the magical force behind both swords) guides him to the place where it will be offered to him. No explanation is given as to the meaning, power, or origin of the sword and, in fact, Malory focuses more attention on the scabbard.
https://preview.redd.it/dke0x6zq6fi51.png?width=810&format=png&auto=webp&s=1e9473360a95ef3dfe83b800080172388c6716e4
Whether presented as the Sword in the Stone or given by the Lady of the Lake, it is clear Excalibur comes from another realm. This motif follows from an established paradigm in Celtic lore of magical weapons, such as the spear of Cuchulain or the sword of Fergus mac Roich, having been forged in a mystical realm.
The same device, however, is used in legends from many cultures around the world. The great swords of Gianjiang and Moye, for example, also have mystical origins. In the case of Excalibur, the sword develops from a mighty weapon to a symbol of divinely inspired justice and redemption. When the weapon is first mentioned in Geoffrey of Monmouth's work, no magical attributes are ascribed to it.
https://preview.redd.it/vcsh2n6u6fi51.png?width=704&format=png&auto=webp&s=e1cdef3da97d8a2e822bfc303de0e9123e026146
THE POWER OF THE SWORD
In Book IX of History of the Kings of Britain, Caliburn is first referenced as "the best of swords, that was forged within the isle of Avallon" and is listed by Geoffrey along with Arthur's other gear as an item of particular importance. As Arthur is preparing to meet the Saxons in battle at Bath, Geoffrey writes:
He did set upon his head a helm of gold graven with the semblance of a dragon. Upon his shoulders, moreover, did he bear the shield that was named Pridwen, wherein, upon the inner side, was painted the image of holy Mary, Mother of God, that many a time and oft did call her back unto his memory. Girt was he also with Caliburn, best of swords, that was forged within the Isle of Avallon; and the lance that did grace his right hand was called by the name Ron, a tall lance and stout, full meet to do slaughter withal.
https://preview.redd.it/sb0w9fcx6fi51.png?width=815&format=png&auto=webp&s=4abcbaff711a1173f69c2bb87a6c8bf8d93bb18c
The Saxons have broken trust with Arthur after they had sworn a treaty of peace and so the battle is a matter of personal honor as well as a necessary defense of his realm. Geoffrey describes a hard-fought battle in which the Saxons hold the high ground and inflict heavy casualties on the Britons under Arthur. The Saxons continue to hold their position until the day is almost gone and then Arthur has finally had enough and leads a final charge on their position himself. Geoffrey writes:
Arthur waxed wroth at the stubborness of their resistance, and the slowness of his own advance, and drawing forth Caliburn, his sword, crieth aloud in the name of Holy Mary, and thrusteth him forward with a swift onset into the thickest press of the enemy's ranks. Whomsoever he touched, calling upon God, he slew at a single blow, nor did he once slacken in his onslaught until that he had slain four hundred and seventy men single-handed with his sword Caliburn. This, when the Britons beheld, they followed him up in close rank dealing slaughter on every side.
Excalibur is described in more or less the same way every time it appears in a story. In Malory's work, when Arthur is attacked by King Lot, he is at first beaten until he unleashes the power of his sword:
Therewith King Lot smote down King Arthur. With that, his four knights rescued him and set him on horseback; then he drew his sword Excalibur, and it was so bright in his enemies' eyes that it gave light like thirty torches. Therewith he put them back and slew many people.

Arthur confronts Lot early in Malory's version of the legend and it seems as though Excalibur is the same sword as the one Arthur earlier drew from the stone. This has caused confusion between two weapons which are often identified as the same but are not.
Excalibur, from the 1981 Film Excalibur. By Eduardo Otubo (CC BY)
THE SWORD IN THE STONE
The concept of the Sword in the Stone was added to the Arthurian legend by the French poet Robert de Boron (12th century CE) in his Merlin. Robert de Boron presents the sword as anchored in an anvil which later writers changed to a stone. The Vulgate Cycle of the legend differentiates between the sword that Arthur drew from the stone and Excalibur and this tradition is continued in the Post-Vulgate Cycle and repeated in Malory's work.
https://preview.redd.it/4o02itkm7fi51.png?width=600&format=png&auto=webp&s=7bdfcbbd948011fd709425ea0658dbccc82a1c9c
Although Arthur's sword is identified as Excalibur early in Malory's version, it becomes clear that it is not the true Excalibur since this sword is broken in Arthur's fight with King Pellinore. Pellinore gets the best of Arthur after his sword breaks and tells him to yield but the young king will not. In order to save both their lives, Merlin puts Pellinore to sleep and then takes Arthur to receive the true Excalibur from the Lady of the Lake. Arthurian scholar Norris J. Lacy writes:
In certain texts (and in popular Arthurian lore), Excalibur is also the Sword in the Stone, but such an identification is incompatible with the tradition, found, for example, in the Post-Vulgate Cycle and Malory, whereby the sword is given to Arthur (and finally taken from him) by a hand in the lake.
Since Excalibur is defined by its power and strength it cannot be the same weapon which is broken in Arthur's encounter with Pellinore. Even so, according to Merlin, it is not Excalibur which is so extraordinary but its scabbard. Merlin asks Arthur, "Which pleases you better, the sword or the scabbard?" and Arthur answers, "The sword pleases me better." Merlin then rebukes him:
"Ye are the more unwise," said Merlin, "for the scabbard is worth ten of the sword. While ye have the scabbard upon you, ye shall never lose any blood, be ye ever so sorely wounded. Therefore always keep the scabbard with you."
This detail becomes significant later in Malory's version of the story when Arthur's sister, Morgan le Fay, steals the scabbard. She had hoped to defeat Arthur through magic by pitting her lover Sir Accolon against Arthur, giving Accolon the true Excalibur and Arthur a fake (a plot device taken almost directly from the Irish Ulster Cycle). When Arthur's sword breaks he knows it is not Excalibur and manages to defeat and kill Accolon. Morgan takes the magical scabbard in revenge and throws it into a lake; thus dooming Arthur in his final battle with Mordred.
SIGNIFICANCE OF EXCALIBUR
The sword has become more famous than the powerful scabbard and continues as a symbol of Arthur's virtue and power. Later works, including El Cid and the Song of Roland, draw on the symbolism of Excalibur for their heroes. J.R.R. Tolkien's famous trilogy of The Lord of the Rings relies on the symbolism of a sword of power which is broken and must be made whole to convey the concept of the return of the rightful king; a plot device which is similar to the Sword in the Stone motif where the land suffers after Uther Pendragon's death until the legitimate king is able to draw the magical sword from the stone.
https://preview.redd.it/qp5mf9348fi51.png?width=1000&format=png&auto=webp&s=84be6eb6f8a5e8f8fac5bd68bf37583522746407
More than simply a literary device, however, Excalibur has come to represent the noblest aspects of the Arthurian legend. Although it is always described as a sword of power, that power is wielded in the best interests of the people, of justice, not in the self-interest of the king. Excalibur is given to Arthur through magical means, by the Lady of the Lake; it is not a weapon forged in this world but in another. The sword comes from this other realm and, once Arthur is defeated and dying, it must be returned there. This motif is not unique to the Arthurian legend but is borrowed from Celtic tradition in which the magical weapon must be returned to its source.

https://preview.redd.it/w5iaelr18fi51.png?width=500&format=png&auto=webp&s=7496afc24b6a08db71503a07632f42557b52ca98
In some versions of the story, the knight Sir Girflet, who has survived the final battle between Arthur and Mordred, is given the task of throwing Excalibur back into the lake; in Malory this falls to Sir Bedevere. Whether Girflet or Bedevere, Arthur's command that Excalibur be returned to where it came from goes unheeded twice since the knight he sends on the errand cannot see the sense in throwing away such a noble and powerful weapon.
https://preview.redd.it/kflvsru05fi51.png?width=429&format=png&auto=webp&s=78737e297b71bcd9bb22b2c518e074db2bed185e
This failure on the part of one of Arthur's most trusted companions resonates with the Christian story of the betrayal of Christ by Judas, as it is intended to, and points to the same meaning: that the world cannot understand or appreciate the efforts of the divine will to help it rise to more than what it thinks it can be.
https://preview.redd.it/v2xubz0z7fi51.png?width=614&format=png&auto=webp&s=d5754a475a84aa89d1cb2dea034ea5f34a015681
Disclaimer: Although gathered from credible sources, some or all of this article may be false. Or some or all may be true. I cannot validate either. Some of the photos and art submitted are from online followers and may not be accurate depictions of the things, people or places they may be referring to. I do not hold any responsibility for submitted photos, art or submitted articles. All art, photos and articles are copyright of their respective creators. This is a thread and subreddit dedicated to mythology and lore and some of the topics and postings here may be completely false, partially false or entirely true. Me and my moderators cannot vouch for either.
#excalibur #excaliburmyth #excaliburswrodofpower #excalibureancienthistory #excaliburfolklore #folklore #mythology #christianfables #arthurianlegends #legends #renaissance #darkage #thedarkages
submitted by CindyMorrisonwatts1 to u/CindyMorrisonwatts1 [link] [comments]


2020.08.20 10:51 SukieBearz Sections Overlapping

EDIT: My 5 am brain is the worst. So I fixed it by changing the position to relative and updating the live preview. The live preview was lagging behind in the code, thus no changes were showing. Thank you to anyone who commented, much appreciated!

So for the life of me, I cannot figure out what's going on! Partially because it's almost 5 am and I've also looked through my code for a mistake but I can't seem to find anything. So, of course, I cam to Reddit for help. So, I am coding a website for a class and as I'm nearing the end of the basics, the sections of the bottom of the webpage start to overlap and won't go back to normal. I have attached my code so you can get a sense of my frustration. Please feel free to call out my stupidity.
HTML:
     Sukanya Harris      

Sukanya Harris

Undergraduate Student and Character Designer

About

Myself
My name is Sukanya Harris. I am an undergraduate student attending Georgia Tech. I like pie. This is a paragraph. Yes it is happening to you right now. The end of the world is upon us. Have fun. Did I scare you with this fictional text? I hope I did.

Portfolio

Recent Projects
Character Design for Webtoon

Agatha

Agatha yay yay witch child
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Character Design for Webtoon

Giovanna

golden vampire kid
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3D Objects

Simpson Donut

tasty donut made in Blender
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Work Experience

Past and current jobs
  • Office Assistant

    NAVE Housing
  • Disney College Program

    Walt Disney World
  • Student Assistant

    College of Computing
  • HackGT Hack-a-thon: Into the Rabbit Hole

    hacking
  • HackGT: Catalyst Mentor

    helping high schoolers hack
  • HackGT Hack-a-thon: Dare to Venture

    hacking
  • Tapia Conference of Diversity in Computing

    hacking at a conference

Contact

Reach out to me here
Copy: 2020 Sukanya Harris
CSS:
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border-radius: .8rem; } .section-heading h1::after{ width: 1.5rem; height: 1.5rem; border-radius: 100%; bottom: -1rem; } .section-heading h6{ font-size: 1.6rem; font-weight: 300; } .has-margin-right{ margin-right: 5rem; } /*End reusable*/ /*Start header*/ header{ width: 100%; height: 100vh; } .top-nav{ width: 100%; height: 100vh; position: fixed; top: -100vh; z-index: 50; background-color: lightcoral; border-bottom-right-radius: 100%; border-bottom-left-radius: 100%; transition: all 0.65s cubic-bezier(1,0,0,1); } .nav-list{ list-style: none; width: 100%; height: 100%; display: flex; justify-content: center; align-items: center; } li{ margin: 0 2rem; } .nav-link{ font-family: "The Historia Demo", sans-serif; font-size: 5rem; padding: 1rem; } .nav-link:hover, .nav-link:focus{ background-color: #DEEAEA; -webkit-background-clip: text; -webkit-text-fill-color: transparent; } .top-nav.open{ top:0; border-radius: initial; } .menu-toggler{ position: absolute; top: 5rem; right: 5rem; width: 5rem; 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top: -2.5rem; right: 5rem; border-radius: 100%; display: flex; animation: pulse 2s infinite; } .up i{ color: mediumseagreen; font-size: 2rem; margin: auto; } .copyright p{ font-size: 1.4rem; } /*End footer*/ /*Start animations*/ @keyframes pulse { 0%{ box-shadow: 0 0 0 0 rgba(253,87,191,0.99); } 70%{ box-shadow: 0 0 0 2rem rgba(253,87,191,0); } 100%{ box-shadow: 0 0 0 0 rgba(253,87,191,0); } } /*End animations*/ /*Start media queries*/ /*End media queries*/ 
submitted by SukieBearz to HTML [link] [comments]


2020.08.18 07:31 TeyvatHistoria Teyvat Historia - GENSHIN IMPACT OFFICIAL RELEASE DATE REVEALED!

Teyvat Historia - GENSHIN IMPACT OFFICIAL RELEASE DATE REVEALED! submitted by TeyvatHistoria to Genshin_Impact [link] [comments]


2020.08.12 18:18 bhlogan2 A couple of things I see nobody discussing that appear on the oficial page of Bandai Namco

Just out of curiosity I entered the page and started reading a couple of things there and saw some possible hints at how the game could be. Don't hold your breath, it's nothing too substantial, just small details, but I thought it could be nice to discuss it. I also entered the page on Spanish, but I can just simply translate when necessary:
ELDEN RING es el juego más grande de FromSoftware hasta la fecha y ofrecerá un reino grande y con una historia tan rica como sangrienta
"Elden Ring is the greatest game by From Software to date (in size) and will offer a huge kingdom with a history as rich as it is bloody." On first sight, there's nothing new here, right? We already knew it was going to be From's biggest game. But I noticed how it said" kingdom", instead of 'kingdoms". Small thing, but it's already telling us the game is going to be set in a single kingdom, rather than many whom the player will be able to explore. Really, it might be a small thing, but it does confirm that the story is going to focus on a single location and its surroundings, instead of being about exploring distant lands beyond the kingdom we could possibly start at.
(Quote by Miyazaki) . El equipo está trabajando duro para asegurarse de que el mundo de ELDEN RING sea un lugar fascinante que los jugadores puedan explorar. Es un mundo repleto de peligros y maravillas por igual, tanto en los confines más lejanos como en las profundidades más remotas.
"The team is working hard to make sure the world of ER is a fascinating place for the players to explore. A world full of dangers and wonders alike, from the furthest reaches to the lowest depths." Did Miyazaki confirm in an interview already that there were underground locations? Because if he didn't, this did.
So with this information, and if the marketing team didn't make a mistake of some kind, ER should feature one single kingdom (a complete one maybe, not like Lordran in Dark Souls that basically just featured the surroundings of New Londo and Anor Londo at that big wall), and underground locations that could be important to the story (tombs a d Labyrinths, and maybe they could try with something similar to the Chalice Dungeons? Who knows).
Anyway, it's not much, but it could be worth a discussion I think. What do you think?
submitted by bhlogan2 to Eldenring [link] [comments]


2020.08.10 19:44 CMacLaren On Rust, and Liberty

THE BADDAGE BOYS ARE BACK IN TOWN
Akbar
Akbar, a powerful vampire, was burnt when the Mother and Father, Akasha and Enkil, were put into the sun. He resides in Antioch, in search of the Mother and Father, and leaves his victims on the steps of the Temple.
Akbar threatens to kill Pandora unless Marius allows him to see and drink from the ancient couple. He drains Pandora to near death before Marius allows him to see the Mother and Father, and is later destroyed by Akasha when he attempts to drink from her.
http://i.imgur.com/jhDIx.jpg
Azim
Azim was one of the older vampires. He ruled as a god for a thousand years in a secret temple in the Himalayas, where those who went to worship him never returned alive.
He conducted disturbing rituals and entices Pandora to participate in them in return for Marius' location (when Marius gets trapped in the ice after Akasha awakens).
Akasha spares him during her worldwide slaughter, but for a purpose. She sees him as the ultimate symbol of vampire evil and explodes his body in front of human witnesses.
http://i.imgur.com/PEmx8.jpg
Daniel Molloy
Daniel was the recorder of Louis' confession that later became the story Interview with the Vampire. Born in 1955, Daniel comes across Armand in 1975, after he had recorded Louis' story.
He becomes Armand's mortal companion, but conflicts drive them apart. Armand continually refuses Daniel's requests for immortality.
Daniel turns to alcohol and becomes a mortal recipient of the dream of the twins. In 1985, Armand gives Daniel (who is dying) immortal life. He survives Akasha's worldwide slaughter of vampires.
http://i.imgur.com/ePwqZ.jpg
Druid Vampire (God of the Grove)
The Druid Vampire, also known as the God of the Grove, was kept in an oak tree by the Druids to preside over their harvest and to ensure the fertility of their land. He was badly burnt when Akasha and Enkil were placed in the sun, and as a result of his weakened state, the Druids went in search for another god.
The Druids abduct Marius and return him to their god, who subsequently makes Marius a vampire. He is destroyed by the Druids when he tries to accompany Marius in search of reasons as to why so many vampires where burnt.
http://i.imgur.com/lAAAr.jpg
Synopsis
The brand-new bestselling series from the authors of the phenomenal multi-million-selling Left Behind books. Now in paperback!
Here is the first in the Biblically inspired series, The Jesus Chronicles, which brings to life the story of Jesus, told in the voices of those who knew and loved him best-the Gospel writers John, Mark, Matthew, and Luke.
In this volume, readers will discover John's story, a thrilling account of the life of the man who came to fulfill the prophecies of the Old Testament and to save all of humankind-and the disciple who was the last eyewitness to Jesus' glory. Readers will experience firsthand the creation of the Gospel of John as well as the Book of Revelation-Scripture that still has profound meaning for the world 2,000 years later. Publishers Weekly.
http://i.imgur.com/18mF2.jpg
Elder
An ancient Egyptian vampire, the Elder was the guardian of Akasha and Enkil prior to Marius. He was the cause of vampires everywhere being burnt (himself included), when he placed the ancient couple in the sun.
He does this to test the legend that the preservation or destruction of Akasha and Enkil is the determinant in the survival of the vampire race.
When Marius comes to remove the ancient couple from the Elder's care, the Elder becomes enraged and is killed by Akasha.
http://i.imgur.com/vuzpF.jpg Eric
Eric was made a vampire by Maharet around BC1000 at the mortal age of thirty. He survives Akasha's worldwide slaughter due to his immortal age of three thousand years and is one of the immortals that gather at Sonoma to stand against Akasha.
http://i.imgur.com/U4IQH.jpg
Flavius
Flavius is a one-legged Greek mortal slave who Pandora falls in love with in Antioch. He becomes Pandora's companion and protector even after she is made a vampire.
To the disgust of Marius, Pandora makes Flavius a vampire as he lay on his deathbed riddled with disease. He was forty years old.
When Marius discovers what Pandora has done, he sends Flavius away. Before he left, Flavius thanked Pandora for the immortality she gave him.
http://i.imgur.com/dFT76.jpg
Foundation Patriot
She was a peasant. She would go outside during the day in search of victims. Once, she approached a man carrying bread, she striked, sucking his fore-arm in order for him to drop the bread roll.She then, in the role of men in her step, remove the pan and press the bread with the smoke of his ability. During Badage droughts, she would feast upon her own brain. Badage drought in your brain, she woke up.
http://i.imgur.com/KAxXO.jpg
Laurent
Laurent is a vampire Baby Jenks meets during Akasha's worldwide slaughter of vampires. He is killed during this event. (He may or may not be the same Laurent from Armand's first Parisian coven — this is unclear.
http://i.imgur.com/YITrj.jpg
Madeleine
Madeleine was a Parisian doll maker who Claudia chose to be her mother and protector when Claudia feared Louis would leave her for Armand.
She was killed by Armand's coven, together with Claudia, the same year she was given immortal life. She had lost a child near Claudia's age when Louis made her a vampire, in 1862. Madeleine was the first vampire made by Louis.
http://i.imgur.com/JSLZL.jpg
Magnus
Magnus, the maker of Lestat, gave himself immortality during the 1400s when he trapped a vampire and stole blood from it. He chose to make Lestat a vampire because of his courage.
On the same night he made Lestat a vampire, during the year 1780, he destroyed himself in a fire, leaving Lestat alone to discover and learn about his immortality.
http://i.imgur.com/il4nf.jpg
The Woop-Town Supper
There was might in the whole world of the same face deers even when the metro man dances in the moon light and continues to splash fish in the water in an attempt to play some ball.
http://i.imgur.com/M7Mmt.jpg
The Jenikens Chronicle
Also know as the Master of Supper in the nether regions. His head head would be imploded if the crisp the crops during the Badage civil wars. The Akasha used to use the gamers ass soer weapons because the butter on the boot would have even more then the yearsd of the yatke.
http://i.imgur.com/gpjVn.jpg
The Master of Might
The Nabonidus Chronicle is an ancient Babylonian text, part of a larger series of Babylonian Chronicles incribed in cuneiform script on clay tablets. It deals primarily with the reign of Nabonidus, the last king of the Neo-Babylonian Empire, covers the conquest of Babylon by the Persian king Cyrus the Great and ends with the start of the reign of Cyrus's son Cambyses, spanning a period from 556 BC to some time after 539 BC. It provides a rare contemporary account of Cyrus's rise to power and is the main source of information on this period;[1] Amélie Kuhrt describes it as "the most reliable and sober [ancient] account of the fall of Babylon."[2]
http://i.imgur.com/LIJiE.jpg
The essence of destruction
Although he may be just one of these old factioned faction. The master of wisom used tp bein the legue of the slit babied mammothes. It is unsure to why the health of such a large gigantic spepas uses such large and strange men.
http://i.imgur.com/LydF4.jpg
The Roaming Swordman
He is thought to combat large spiked black zombies who use baked potatoes as a lube to make their eyes work ffaster. It was unsure why he would take such risks for only the amount of the same young hill billy uses hte sweat of a large antelope and once they do, the large bird uses its pheromones to lure the large one with the old man happy.
http://i.imgur.com/7I2Tv.jpg
The Nasty Banquote
She was born in Châteauroux in 1954. She remained there for eighteen months. During her childhood, with her three brothers and sisters, she moved from city to city, depending on the assignments her sub-prefect father received.
In 1976 she was awarded a Master of Philosophy by the Sorbonne, Paris, and in 1978 went on to complete an MA in philosophy and aesthetics at Université de Paris X - Nanterre. There, too, she completed a doctorate in philosophy in 1981. During those years she studied with a teacher she admires, Emmanuel Levinas, and her work focussed on the notion of asceticism in Christian mysticism.
Work He uses the same humans as the one whpo produced the sweat y but also fat men of the large bablionial ground of which the man with the square and hte strange heart. He would cry 'Why are there latino in my huron'.
http://i.imgur.com/HK3KG.jpg
Essential Reading Carradice I, & Price M.J., Coinage in the Greek World, London 1988. Sellwood, D. 'Minting' in D. Strong and D. Brown Roman Crafts, London 1976, pp.63-73
Catalogues & Reference Works (Some have very useful introductions)
Burnett A., Amandry M., Rippolès P.P., Roman Provincial Coinage, London 1992. Callataÿ F. de., L'histoire des guerres Mithridatiques vue par les monnaies, Louvain-la-Neuve 1997. Houghton A., Coins From the Seleucid Empire from the Collection of Arthur Houghton, New York 1983. Lindgen H.C. & Kovacs F.L., I Ancient Bronze Coins of Asia Minor and the Levant, California 1985. Lindgen H.C. & Kovacs F.L., II Ancient Greek Bronze Coins: European Mints, California 1989. Lindgen H.C. & Kovacs F.L., III Ancient Bronze Coins from the Lindgren Collection, California 1993. Metcalf W.E., The Silver Coinage of Cappadocia, Vespasian-Commodus, New York 1996. Newell E.T., The Coinage of the Eastern Seleucid Mints from Seleucus I to Antiochus III, New York 1978 (reprint). Newell E.T., The Coinage of the Western Seleucid Mints from Seleucus I to Antiochus III, New York 1977 (reprint).
Price, M.J., Coinage in the Name of Alexander the Great and Philip Arrhidaeus, London 1991. SNG British Museum I, The Black Sea, London 1993. SNG Copenhagen
SNG von Aulock (Asia Minor mints) Secondary Literature: Monographs Balmuth, M.S. Hacksilber to Coinage: New Insights into the Monetary History of the Near East and Greece, New York 2001. Burnett A., Wartenberg U., & Witschonke R. (edd.), Coins of Macedonia and Rome: Essays in Honour of Charles Hersh, London 1998. Butcher K., Roman Provincial Coins, Lonson 1988. Carradice I., Greek Coins, London 1995. Figuera T., The Power of Money: Coinage and Politics in the Athenian Empire, Pennsylvania 1998. Grierson P. Numismatics, Oxford 1975. Harl K.W., Civic Coins and Civic Politics, California 1987. Head B., Historia Nummorum, 2nd ed. Oxford 1911/67. Hill G.F., Coins of Ancient Sicily, London. Hill G.F., Historical Greek Coins, London. Howgego C., Ancient History from Coins. Jenkins G.K., Ancient Greek Coins, 2nd ed London 1990. Jones J.M., A Dictionary of Ancient Greek Coins, London 1986. Kraay C.M., Archaic and Classical Greek Coins, London 1976. Kraay C.M., Coins of Ancient Athens, Newcastle 1968.
Martin T.R., Sovereignty and Coinage in Classical Greece, 1885. Meadows, A. and K. Shipton Money and its Uses in the Ancient Greek World Oxford 2001. Melville-Jones J.R., Testimonia Numaria, London 1993. Milne J.G., Greek Coinage, Oxford 1931. Mørkholm O., Early Hellenistic Coinage, Cambridge 1991. Nash D., Coinage in the Celtic World, London 1987. Oikonomides A.N., The Coins of Alexander the Great, Chicago 1981. Penn R.G., Medicine on Ancient Greek and Roman Coins, London 1994. Plant R., Greek Coin Types and Their Identification, London 1979. Ramage, A. and Craddock, P. King Croesus' Gold: Excavations and the History of Gold Refining, London 2000. Roberts W.R., The Ancient Boeotians and the Coinage of Boeotia, Chicago 1974. Rutter, N.K., Greek Coinage, Aylesbury 1983. Rutter, N.K., The Greek Coinages of Southern Italy and Sicily, London 1997. Rutter, N.K. Historia Nummorum, Italy, London 2001. Seltman C., Athens, its Hitsory and Coinage, Chicago 1974. Seltman C., Greek Coins, London 1977.
Troxell H., Studies in the Macedonian Coinage of Alexander the Great, New York 1997. Van Arsdell R.D., Celtic Coinage of Britain, London 1989.
Journal Articles
Beer L., 'Results of Coin Striking to simulate the Mint of Aegina' Proceedings of the 9th International Congress of Numismatics 1982, 47-51. Buttrey T.V., 'Pharaonic Imitations of Athenian Tetradrachms', Proceedings of the 9th International Congress of Numismatics 1982, 137-40 Clay T., 'Metallurgy and Metallography in Numismatics', Numismatica e Antichita Classiche 17 (1988) 341-52. Hill G.F., 'Ancient Methods of Coining' NC 1922, 1-42. Holloway R.R., 'The Date of the First Greek Coins: Some Arguments from Style and Hoards', Revue Belge de Numismatique, 130 (1984) 5-17. Kagan D., 'The Dates of the Earliest Coins', AJA 86 (1982) 343-60 Kinns P., The Amphictyonic Coinage Reconsidered', NC 143 (1983) 1-22. Kraay C.M., 'The Archaic Owls of Athens: Classification and Chronology', NC 6 (1956) 43-68. Kroll J.H., 'From Wappenmünzen to Gorgoneia to Owls', ANSMN 26 (1981) 1-32. Kroll J.H. & Waggoner N.M., 'Dating the Earliest Coins of Athens, Corinth and Aegina', AJA 88 (1984) 325-40. Lewis D.M., 'The Chronolgy of the Athenian New Style Coinage', NC 11 (1962) 275-300. Mørkholm O., 'The Chronolgy of the New Style Coinage of Athens', ANSMN 29 (1984) 29-42. Mørkholm O., 'The "Behaviour" of Dies in the Hellenistic Period', Proceedings of the 9th International Congress of Numismatics1982, 209-14. Petrillo S. & Volk T.R., 'Old and New Worlds: Ancient Coinage and Modern Technology', in Information to Knowledge ed. Nisson E. & Schmidt K., Oxford 1995, pp.151-70. Price M.J., 'Early Greek Bronze Coinage', in Kraay C.M. & Jenkins G.K., Essays in Greek Coinage Presented to Stanley Robinson, 1968, pp. 90-104.
Price M.J. & Waggoner N., Archaic Greek Coinage: The Asyut Hoard, 1975. Robinson W.S.G., 'The Date of the Earliest Coins', NC 16 (1956) 1-8. Vickers M., ' Early Greek Coinage: A Reassessment', NC 145 (1985) 1-44. Walker A.S., 'Some Plated Coins from the Agora at Athens', Proceedings of the 9th International Congress of Numismatics 1982, 132-6. Roman Bibliography
(Items marked * are available from Dr. Stanley Ireland)
Essential Reading Burnett A., Coinage in the Roman World, London 1988.
Catalogues & Reference Works (Some have very useful introductions) Crawford M.H., Roman Republican Coinage, Cambridge 1974 Grierson P. & Mays M., Late Roman Coins, Washington 1992. Roman Imperial Coinage
Secondary Literature: Monographs Carson R.A.G., Coins of the Roman Empire, London 1990. Carson R.A.G., The Principal Coins of the Romans, London 1978. Casey J. & Reece R., Coins and the Archaeologist, London 1974/88.
Casey J., Understanding Ancient Coins, 1986. Crawford M.H., Coins and Money under the Roman Republic, London 1985. Duncan-Jones, R. Money and Government in the Roman Empire, Cambridge 1994. Foss C., Roman Historical Coins, London 1990. Fox J., Roman Coins and How to Collect Them, London 1983. Giacosa G., Women of the Caesars, Milan. Harl K.W., Coinage in the Roman Economy, Baltimore 1996. Harlan M., Roman Republican Moneyers and Their Coins 63-49BC, London 1995. Hill P.V., The Monuments of Ancient Rome as Coin Types, London 1989. Reece R., Identifying Roman Coins, London 1986. Sear D.R., The History and Coinage of the Roman Imperatores 49-27BC, London 1998. Thomsen R., Early Roman Coinage, Copenhagen 1974. Thurlow B.K. & Vecchi I.G., Italian Cast Coinage, Italian Aes Grave, London 1979.
Journal Articles
Bruun P., 'The Source Value of Imperial Coin Portraits (the fourth century A.D.)', Proceedings of the 9th International Congress of Numismatics1982, 551-9. Burnett A.M., Craddock P.T., Preston K., 'New Light on the Origins of Orichalcum', Proceedings of the 9th International Congress of Numismatics 1982, 263-8. Burnett A., The Currency of Italy from the Hannibalic War to the Reign of Augustus', Annali dell' Istituto Italiano di Numismatica 1982, 125-37. Burnett A.M., 'Clipped Siliquae and the End of Roman Britain', Britannia1984, 163-8. Burnett A.M., 'The Iconography of Roman Coin Types', NC 146 (1986) 67-75.
Burnett A.M., 'The Beginnings of Roman Coinage', Annali dell' Istituto Italiano di Numismatica, 36 (1989) 33-64. Buttrey T.V.,' On the Retariffing of the Roman Denarius', ANSMN 7 (1957) 57-65. Buttrey T.V., 'The Denarii of P. Crepusius and Roman Republican Mint Organization', ANSMN 21 (1976) 67-108. Buttrey T.V., 'Calculating Ancient Coin Production: Facts and Fantasies', Numismatic Chronicle (1993) 335-51. Carson R.A.G., 'The Date of the Capture of Valerian I', Proceedings of the 9th International Congress of Numismatics 1982, 461-5. Cody J., 'Stylistic Trends in the Representation of Godesses on the Roman Republican Coinage', Proceedings of the 9th International Congress of Numismatics 1982, 283-8. Cope L.H., 'The Metallurgical Analysis of Roman Imperial Silver and AesCoinage', in Methods of Chemical and Metallurgical Investigation of Ancient Coinage ed. Hall E.T. & Metcalf D.W., RNS special publ. 1972, pp.1-47. Cope L.H., 'Surface-Silvered Ancient Coins', in Methods of Chemical and Metallurgical Investigation of Ancient Coinage ed. Hall E.T. & Metcalf D.W., RNS special publ. 1972, pp.261-78. Crawford M.H., 'The coinage of the Age of Sulla', NC (1964) 141- 58. Crawford M.H., 'Plated Coins - False Coins', NC (1968) 55-9. Duncan-Jones R.P., 'The Currency of Italy from the Hannibalic War to the Reign of Augustus', Annali dell' Istituto Italiano di Numismatica, 29 (1982) 125-37. Ehrhardt C.T.H.R., 'Roman Coin Types and the Roman Public', Jahrbuch für Nimismatik und Geldgeschichte 34 (1984) 41-54. Kenyon R.F., 'The Countermark PROB on Coins of Claudius I from Britain', NC 148 (1988) 53-61. Kleiner D.E.E., 'Politics and Gender in the Pictorial Propaganda of Antony and Octavian', Echos du Monde Classique 11 (1992) 357-67. Mattingly H.B., 'New Light on the Roman Victoriate', in Kraay C.M. & Jenkins G.K., Essays in Greek Coinage Presented to Stanley Robinson, 1968, pp210-28. Mattingly H.B., The Management of the Roman Republican Mint', Annali dell' Istituto Italiano di Numismatica 1982, 9-46. Metcalf W.E., 'The Flavians in the East' Proceedings of the 9th International Congress of Numismatics 1982, 321-39. Millar F., 'The Aerarium and its Officials', JRS 1964.
Newman R., 'A Dialogue of Power in the Coinage of Antony and Octavian', AJN 2 (1990) 37-63. Ramage E., 'Denigration of Predecessors under Claudius, Galba and Vespasian', Historia 1983, 200-14. Reece R., 'Economic History from Roman Site-Finds', Proceedings of the 9th International Congress of Numismatics 1982, 495-502. Shotter D.C.A., 'The Principate of Nero: Some Observations on the Coin Evidence', Historia 1983. 216-26.
Sutherland C.H.R., 'Early Imperial Mints in the Western Provinces: The Direction of Coin Types', Numismatica e Antichita Classiche 12 (1983) 151-7. Tyler P., 'Analyses of Mid-Third Century Roman Antoniniani as Historical Evidence', in Methods of Chemical and Metallurgical Investigation of Ancient Coinage ed. Hall E.T., & Metcalf D.W., RNS special publ. 1972, pp.249-60. Wallace-Hadrill R., 'Image and Authority in the Coinage of Augustus', JRS 1986, 66-87.
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2020.08.08 03:20 RemoteBomb [USA] [H] Nintendo Collection: Games, Consoles & Handheld Games, NES & SNES Classic Editions, Collectibles, amiibo, Tech, Posters [W] PayPal

Welcome to my list! These placeholder numbers are pulled from VGPC and, where necessary, are fine-tuned based on recent eBay sold listings depending on condition. Prices may be dated so feel free to update me on that and/or send out offers. As a courtesy and in the spirit of happy swapping and selling, I respond to every offer.
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