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Peugeot offers the model Partner in the class of utility vehicles since 1996 and delivers it as a van and minibus. There are two versions on the market. Partner Origin was produced until 2009 and Partner Tepee since 2008. The first generation came on market together with the Citroen Berlingo and is sold by Renault as the model Ranch. Interestingly, an electric version of the Partner was available from 1998-2005. The second generation was the Partner II and it was available from 2008-2018. The Partner II was a slightly larger and costlier version than the 1st generation. The engines were similar to what was offered in the first generation. Directed by Shankar Ray. With Jeet, Swastika Mukherjee, Arptia Mukherjee, Santu Mukherjee. Peugeot Partner 1996-2008 Petrol & Diesel Repair Srvc Manual Peugeot Partner 2.0 HDi Complete Workshop Service Repair Manual 2004 2005 2006 Citroen Berlingo Peugeot Partner Workshop Manual - FRENCH 2008 ENERGY STAR Appliance Partner Meeting. Date: September 21–24, 2008 Location: Long Beach, CA Description: Hosted by the California utilities, the 2008 Appliance Partner Meeting focused on current ENERGY STAR strategies, plans, and promotions for 2009 as well as updates from U.S. DOE on current efforts and future directions for the program. 2008 ENERGY STAR Lighting Partner Meeting. Date: February 25–27, 2008. Location: Phoenix, Arizona. Description: Hosted by Arizona Public Service (APS), the 2008 Lighting Partner Meeting focused on current ENERGY STAR strategies, plans, and promotions for 2008 as well as updates from U.S. DOE and U.S. EPA on current efforts and future ... Peugeot Partner Tepee Manual 2002 2008. Manual Gearbox. Peugeot Partner Iv 1 6 Hdi Premium 7 2016 36 445 Km. Peugeot Partner Tepee Tepee 90 Family Klima Ahk. Resellers. Manual Gearbox. Peugeot Partner 1 6 Hdi Pack Luxe Airco Schuifdeur Bouwjaar 2008 Prima Staat. Peugeot Partner Wikipedia. Peugeot Partner 2008 - Find out the correct alloy wheel fitment, PCD, offset and such specs as bolt pattern, thread size(THD), center bore(CB) for Peugeot Partner 2008. The world's largest wheel fitment database. Wheel fitment and tire size guide and knowledge base Last Update ... As a Microsoft Partner, you should incentivize customer that chooses ESUs to subscribe to patch release notifications through or work with their technical teams to be informed about the updates. How will critical updates be delivered? SQL Server 2008/R2 running on Windows Server 2008/2008 R2 on Azure Virtual Machines Discover All New & Used 2008 Peugeot Partner Cars For Sale in Ireland on DoneDeal. Buy & Sell on Ireland's Largest Cars Marketplace. Now with Car Finance from Trusted Dealers.

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2020.09.24 04:54 shylock92008 Arming the Planet: the USA as the World’s Leading Weapons Dealer by MELVIN GOODMAN;;;Melvin A. Goodman is a senior fellow at the Center for International Policy and a professor of government at Johns Hopkins University. A former CIA analyst, Goodman is the author of Failure of Intelligence: The Dec

SEPTEMBER 23, 2020

Arming the Planet: the USA as the World’s Leading Weapons Dealer

F-35A. Photo: Staff Sgt. Madelyn Brown/U.S. Air Force.
For the past several decades, the United States has been the world’s leading producer of major weapons systems and the leader in global arms sales. More of these sales have taken place in the globe’s most volatile region, the Middle East, than in any other region of the world. The so-called peace deals between Israel and the United Arab Emirates and Bahrain, which were brokered by the United States, were business deals designed to expand U.S. arms sales in the Persian Gulf. The Trump administration has made arms sales to Saudi Arabia, the UAE, and other Middle East countries the focus of its foreign policy in the region.
No sooner had the ink dried on these agreements than disputes emerged over whether Israel had agreed to permit the sale of U.S. F-35 fighter aircraft—the most expensive weapons system in the U.S. arsenal and the most sophisticated jet fighter in the world—to the United Arab Emirates. Israel has 20 F-35s, which it has flown over Syria, Lebanon, and Iraq. Until now, no Arab country had been allowed access to this aircraft.
As part of an U.S.-Israeli arms agreement in 2008, the United States agreed to make sure that Israel would maintain a “qualitative military edge” in the Middle East, which gave it a virtual veto power over arms deals with Arab states. For example, when Egypt was permitted to buy the U.S. F-16 jet fighter, it had to agree to basing arrangements that the Israelis imposed.
U.S. arms sales generally have contributed to tensions in some of the world’s most sensitive arenas. Saudi Arabia’s misuse of U.S.-supplied fighter aircraft in Yemen, the world’s worst humanitarian nightmare, has contributed to the rising civilian death toll there. For the past five years, the United States has earned billions of dollars in sales to the Saudis, whose coalition has considerable responsibility for many of the deaths of more than 127,000 Yemenis, including more than 15,000 civilians.
In 2016, the Department of State’s legal office concluded, in fact, that U.S. officials could be charged with war crimes for approving bomb sales to the Saudis and their partners. As a result, in his last month in office, President Barack Obama blocked a shipment of precision-guided bombs that he had agreed to sell to the Saudis. Recently, investigators from the United Nations asked the Security Council to refer actions by all parties to an international tribunal for potential war crimes prosecution, according to the New York Times.
The Trump administration is currently taking on a great risk in proposing seven large weapons packages to Taiwan. This would violate agreements with China that require the sale of only defensive weaponry to the self-governing island. The weapons would represent one of the largest sales to Taiwan, and would include long-range missiles—Boeing’s AGM-84H—that would allow Taiwanese fighter aircraft—Lockheed Martin’s F-16—to hit distant targets in China. Last year’s sale of 66 F-16s for $8 billion represented one of the largest arms packages to Taiwan in history,
There have already been consequences. Beijing has sent two anti-submarine aircraft into Taiwan’s air defense identification zone, which led the Taiwanese air force to scramble against them. Chinese fighter jets have crossed the median line in the Taiwan Straits, and a Chinese military exercise conducted a series of anti-ship ballistic missile tests, which were intended as a signal to the United States. The risk of an accidental military clash has increased. China has also threatened sanctions against both Lockheed Martin and Boeing; Lockheed Martin does little business in China and is not vulnerable to sanctions, but Boeing sells commercial jets to China and would definitely suffer.
The increased militarization of national security policy over the past decade has found the Department of Defense taking much of the turf of the Department of State in engaging allied nations regarding security assistance. Recent defense authorization bills have given the Pentagon control of certain aid programs as well as greater flexibility in supporting counterterrorism activities overseas. Pentagon military aid programs, moreover, ignore key human rights or governance concerns that once upon a time drew scrutiny from the State Department. The Pentagon has always held an advantage over the State Department, a much more cumbersome and slower-moving bureaucracy than the Defense Department. Also, the State Department has never been aggressive in protecting its equities, unlike the Pentagon.
Military assistance, as opposed to military sales, has created problems and disappointments as well. The top six recipients of U.S. military assistance in recent years (Israel, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Egypt, Iraq, and Turkey) provide little return, let alone leverage, to the United States. Israel has military dominance in the Middle East, and shouldn’t be receiving military assistance. President Barack Obama instituted record levels of assistance, but the Benjamin Netanyahu government typically timed announcements of settlement expansion on the West Bank to do the most harm to U.S. interests. Settlement activity was announced during a visit by then vice president Joe Biden in 2010, then secretary of state Hillary Clinton in 2011, and even on the eve of a summit meeting between Obama and Netanyahu in 2011.
Pentagon speakers at the National War College, where I taught for 18 years, argued that U.S. military assistance programs “suffused Third World armies with U.S. values.” This would be difficult to ascertain in Egypt, Turkey, and Afghanistan. A retired commandant of the U.S. Army War College argued that “they learn our way of war….but they also learn our philosophies of civil-military relations.” There’s a particular conceit in that statement in view of the growing imbalance in U.S. civil-military relations in recent years as well as the dominant role of the military in Egypt and Pakistan.
The Trump administration launched what Donald Trump calls a “great rebuilding of the Armed Forces” as well as politicizing the military bureaucracy and enhancement of the role of the Pentagon in state-to-state diplomacy. The current dialogue between civilian officials and general officers on international security has become unequal. The fact that Mark Esper, the former vice president for government relations at Raytheon, one of the largest weapons manufacturers, is Secretary of Defense provides added heft to Pentagon arguments for greater weapons sales. Meanwhile, the Department of State must deal with the greater points of friction in the global community created by increased sales of sophisticated weaponry.
The Congressional Research Service of the Library of Congress published an annual review of conventional arms transfers until 2017, when the Trump administration blocked such information from the general public. The last CRS summary appeared in 2018 and recorded that the United States ranked first in arms transfer agreements (nearly half the global total) and first in value of arms deliveries (more than one-third of global sales). Deliveries to Egypt, Qatar, and Saudi Arabia dominated U.S. sales.
Israel does not even appear on the list of weapons recipients in view of U.S. largesse, which includes President Obama’s 2016 record-breaking $38 billion deal over a ten-year period. The deal with Israel was followed by the sale of 36 Boeing F-15 fighters to Qatar and 24 Boeing F/A18 Super Hornets to Kuwait.
There has never been a more important time to debate President Dwight D. Eisenhower’s warning about the insidious economic, political, and even spiritual effects of what he called the “military-industrial-congressional complex.” For the past twenty years, the United States has been in a permanent state of war with a government, an economy, and a global system of military bases that virtually ensures conflict. The fact that this important issue is not part of the presidential debate of 2020 is particularly regrettable. It’s long past time for congressional leadership to take on this “complex.”
Melvin A. Goodman is a senior fellow at the Center for International Policy and a professor of government at Johns Hopkins University. A former CIA analyst, Goodman is the author of Failure of Intelligence: The Decline and Fall of the CIA and National Insecurity: The Cost of American Militarism. and A Whistleblower at the CIA. His most recent book is “American Carnage: The Wars of Donald Trump” (Opus Publishing), and he is the author of the forthcoming “The Dangerous National Security State” (2020).” Goodman is the national security columnist for
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2020.09.23 14:12 LordChozo Hindsight is 2020: #8 - The Musical Box

from Nursery Cryme, 1971
Listen to it here!
And all this time that passed me by…
Phil Collins finishes his caress of an imaginary young lady and puts on his most threateningly cruel face. He hunches over, sweat dripping from every pore in his face, and demands to be touched. For emphasis, he says the imperative “now” 24 times in succession to the rapt attention of the 1992 audience in Wolverhampton. It is the last time Genesis will ever perform any part of this piece, and here, as before, they are only performing its closing section, which flows from “The Lamb Lies Down on Broadway”, just as it had 15 years previously. The snippet is merely one-eighth of a longer jaunt through the band’s back catalog: a collage that would later be known simply as “Old Medley”. Yet this section remains one of the highlights of that medley and indeed the entire show. After all, they’ve had over two decades to hone the thing.
Mike: The studio version doesn’t have the bite on the powerful sections that the song did live. 1
She’s a lady, or at least a lady of the night; The Mama Tour is in full groove by the middle of January, 1984. Things have been working, but the band decides to shake things up a bit heading into Arizona, and they add an old classic into the lineup as part of a medley after “Mama”. Phil does his best Peter impersonation to try to recreate the classic feel on the line “You stand there with your fixed expression…” It’s a crowd favorite, but in the age of VHS, recording space is limited; the medley is dropped from the eventual video release.
Tony: I think it created that sort of fantasy, the lyric relating to all this sort of...the old Victorian kind of quality it has, and the album cover which related obviously to that as well. 2
Peter Gabriel needs help. His WOMAD project is a financial disaster and it’s threatening to bring him down with it. Launched two years earlier, by 1982 WOMAD and Gabriel’s funding company are facing utter ruin unless they can make an awful lot of money in a very small amount of time. Gabriel’s manager Tony Smith, who is also the manager of Genesis, suggests a one-off reunion concert they’ll call Six of the Best. After a few songs, Peter addresses the crowd. “Croquet is a particularly vicious British sport.” He proceeds to relay the story of Henry and Cynthia in words and in music, as Genesis plays “The Musical Box” in its entirety for the final time.
Peter: A lot of it is based on fantasies, without them taking over from the music. There is a lot of freedom in the music. Nobody has to compromise too much. In our writing we are trying to do something that hasn’t been done before, and that is to write a combination of sections that match. We have a number called “The Musical Box” that is composed in this way. It’s quite a complicated story - about a spirit that returns to bodily form and meets a Victorian girl. He has the appearance of an old man and the relations with the young lady are somewhat perverted, so he gets bumped off into the never-never. 3
Mike: Peter’s performance was half trying to explain what the song was about. That’s how it started, really. Genesis music has always had a fair amount of drama in it. And so the more kind of you can add to the drama, the better, really. 4
The City of Brotherly Love demands an encore. Again. There’s something the band has tucked away in the arsenal, though it’s been a while since they’ve used it. Certainly it hasn’t come up so far in the Duke Tour during this year of 1980, but nine minutes or so is a big ask for a second encore, and they haven’t put in the rehearsal time to make the full song work. So they opt for just the end section, same as most of the audience heard on the previous live album, same as they’ve been doing for years. It’s the most powerful bit anyway, right? Who’s going to complain?
Tony: I think the real strength of the song comes towards the end really, with this little bit that starts “She’s a lady.” And the organ comes in playing this little sort of fugue-y type thing... On stage once we started playing this, I realized just how strong that was a real standout moment on stage, I think. 2
Genesis has been adapting to life as a trio, spending a third of their set on material from the newest album, with another third coming from the next most recent pair of albums they’ve done. But there’s still a desire to play a few of the old favorites, and here in Vienna in 1978, they decide to change things up slightly and dust off a bit that’s older than anything else they’re playing on the tour - older even than “The Fountain of Salmacis”, which is a regular in the setlist. Once again they tie this end section of “The Musical Box” together with “The Lamb Lies Down on Broadway”, but now position the pair as an encore; a little hat tip to an appreciative crowd who don’t know they’re hearing something particularly rare.
Tony: I think two songs on [Nursery Cryme], “The Musical Box” and “The Fountain of Salmacis”, are exceptional. 5
The band is mixing Seconds Out when Steve Hackett finally bites the bullet and leaves the band, leaving this live album as his final playing legacy. The music on the 1977 album is meant to serve as a time capsule for that year’s Wind & Wuthering tour, where the band decided to bring back old favorite “The Musical Box” in an abridged form, attaching it to “The Lamb Lies Down on Broadway” and playing only the song’s most powerful section. Tony jokes that Genesis mixed Steve out of Seconds Out once he quit; apparently they also mixed him out of the accompanying promo video for the song.
Steve: I think it’s that thing about Genesis where you get a very long song that builds and builds and builds - you get these sort of Sousa crescendos - finally hitting with this bit that we did on Seconds Out, of course. The most memorable bit perhaps of the song but there’s so much more to it. Very English, but… insistent and urgent, you know? There’s something about this... It’s something that...that really speaks for itself, doesn’t it? That feeling of the crescendoed peak of the song with something that is quintessentially English, but at the same time you’ve got haunted nurseries and this kind of Victoriana and eroticism all kind of mixed in together in that very impressionistic, rambling way that Genesis did at that time. But I still love the track. I get to play it as many times as I can live. I still love it. 6
Genesis are asking a lot of their audiences. Here in late 1974, they’re about to go on the road to play their concept double album, The Lamb Lies Down on Broadway, in its entirety. In most cases, the people they’re playing to won’t have heard any of the music for the entire show. But with over a hundred minutes in the set already and a self-contained story to tell, there’s no room to slip the fan favorites in between. So a compromise of sorts is reached that they’ll play one beloved tune as an encore when the audiences are receptive to the elaborate stage show that is The Lamb. “The Musical Box”, a consistent live staple for the past four years, is chosen to be that song.
Tony: The music we were never going to compromise in any way with anything we did on the records. But when it came to the stage show and what you could do for publicity, I mean we were pretty open really. And I think it helped Pete, because he’s not a natural on stage really. It gave him something to hide behind. It gave him something to work with. And so once he’d done that, the idea of costumes and masks and sort of in a sense acting out characters all the time came very naturally to him. 4
Mike: We were starting to create an atmosphere about the band. As a perception. Slightly quirky, people seeing this artwork, hearing the songs, Pete’s performance...I felt were starting to become something that was a little unique in the music business in England. And that was a good thing, I think. 2
Genesis are becoming established in the live scene. 1973 is proving to be a pretty good year for their reputation, on the back of their album Foxtrot and with its followup providing even more great material. But “The Musical Box” remains the crowd favorite. Around this early era, an enterprising Mike Rutherford figures he can probably accomplish more playing live if he attaches a guitar to a bass guitar, and so begins to be seen playing the “doubleneck” in concert from time to time.
Mike: Doublenecks have their downside… They’re heavy brutes to play and they unbalance you, although I only ever fell off stage once. It was during rehearsals somewhere in the American Midwest and no one realized I was no longer there. I could have killed myself and they would have just carried on playing. “The Musical Box” had no bass until the pedals at the very end - the middle section was just the low strings of the guitar, filling the bass area in. But as I was lying there flat on my back, pinned to the floor, slightly concussed, I can remember thinking that it would have been nice to have been missed. 7
A young, earnest Steve Hackett has his ad in Melody Maker answered and soon finds himself part of a group called Genesis, who have just fired their previous guitarist after a brief probationary period. He’s run through the ringer of learning the band’s back catalog, and after a few months of trial by fire on stage, he retreats with them to write what will become Nursery Cryme. He’s happy to be involved in the material, but there’s one song on the album that’s already essentially completed by early 1971 when he joins them: something called “The Musical Box”. He dutifully learns the piece along with the other material, but finds a place to put his own stamp on it before the album is officially recorded.
Steve: "The Musical Box" was the only song that I think was written before I joined. Although the song was written, there was still a lot of room to make improvements. No one was making the sound of a musical I felt well here's me for a start! 8
It’s clear in late 1970 that playing with only four people isn’t going to work out for the long term, so a new guitarist by the name of Mick Barnard is brought on board. His talent isn’t terrible, although he seems to be a bit useless in the writing room. It soon becomes clear that Mick isn’t the answer, but as they’re about to begin auditioning other guitarists behind his back, he comes up with an electric guitar solo at the end of the piece called “The Musical Box” which really adds a lot of power and character to the song. They wonder where this has been all along, even as they spot an intriguing ad in Melody Maker.
Tony: Steve was in the band a very short time when we recorded Nursery Cryme. All the guitar parts on “Musical Box” were actually written by Mick; Steve tended to play pretty much what Mick had played ‘cause there wasn’t much time to learn new parts. Most of the guitar on it is Mike anyhow - all the rhythm guitar, it always was. There wasn’t that much lead guitar on it. 5
Tony: The melody line at the end of the song was actually written at the time that Mick Barnard was with the group, so that was his contribution to the song. 9
Tony: Mick Barnard...was actually good! But he just probably wasn’t assertive enough, you know? And while that really wasn’t working, we then auditioned Steve. 2
With Mike rejecting every guitarist out there, the band is stuck at four. They can’t afford to stop gigging, so they rearrange some parts. Tony will play lead guitar through a fuzzbox on his organ, while Mike will play rhythm guitar and invest in some bass pedals so they don’t lose the bottom registers of the songs. It’s difficult, and some songs don’t work at all, but one of them - “The Musical Box” - actually comes together pretty well.
Tony: Although it was probably never great, the four-piece thing, we did get it so it wasn’t too bad. And we started writing this piece which became “The Musical Box”...and we knew this was really good; we used to play it on stage and stuff as a four-piece, it was good. 2
Mike: It’s interesting because in a sense we were trying to work as a four-piece and it wasn’t really working. Tony doing all the lead parts on fuzz piano, you know. But actually funny enough, this song was the first I felt that did work as a four-piece. The sound we made - I’m playing pedals at the end, Tony’s playing keyboards - I mean, had we gone the four-piece route, this song might have been where we might’ve gone. I’m glad we didn’t. But in a sense this song worked well on stage as a four-piece. 2
Steve: They did a few gigs without a guitarist before they had Mick and Tony said he was trying to play in a guitaristic kind of manner with his keyboards. So he had a Hohner Pianette going through a fuzz box, not a synthesizer; this was way before all of that stuff, and I thought, “That's interesting, here is a keyboard player trying to sound like a guitarist,” and so some of the lines I came up with on that song I wanted to sound like a keyboard… That was what was interesting about the band, the fact that what am I hearing here? Am I hearing a guitar or a keyboard? 8
Mike: See, there we are, we’re kind of going acoustic, but going more electric. You know, it starts soft and it builds and builds and builds. By the end it’s just, everything’s going, you know. It’s as big as any song we’ve ever done really, I think. And I guess probably this must be the first time with the bass pedals. Because Trespass was a five-piece so you didn’t need bass pedals, but we’ve gone to that four-piece scenario with Tony playing the lead parts and me trying to play rhythm guitar parts and bass pedals at the same time. So it’s funny how things happen. You get stretched and forced into doing something. I’m sure if we’d never have been a four-piece I’d never have bothered to pick up any bass pedals. 2
Tony Banks comes up with an exciting ending for the work-in-progress “Musical Box” song, a big organ chord run over Mike’s playing that really ratchets up the drama of the piece, providing it with a suitably epic conclusion. Peter Gabriel, both inspired by the sound he’s hearing and annoyed at what he perceives as Tony’s lack of common sense, writes some lyrics to go over top of it and sings them in rehearsal.
Tony: The part I was most happy with on that particular song was the final section, where Mike had this little chord sequence and I started playing these very simple major chords on top of it so that it became almost like a fugue, quite quietly, before developing into something that was really, really exciting. I remember a bit of an argument at the time about whether there should be vocals on it or not. I felt there shouldn’t [be] because I thought, “It’s such a great piece of organ playing!” But Pete started singing and although I initially felt, “Oh no, no, shut up,” then I stopped myself: “Hang on, this sounds really good.” The combination moved it onto another level, a big high… 10
Peter: This was one of the regular battlegrounds. Because Tony would [be] blissfully unaware of an audience and want to stretch things out for ten or twenty minutes for big keyboard instrumental things. And I would be thinking, “Well we’re trying to tell a story here, too. We need to re-plug in back with some vocals.” So I think there were a lot of arguments about those type of issues... And it was an important part, because you didn’t want all the “up” moments to be instrumental only, and all the “down” moments to be the vocal bits. I certainly didn’t! 2
New Genesis drummer Phil Collins is, from his first day in the fold, the most accomplished musician in the band. He’s no songwriter, of course, but he’s more a master of his instrument than any of the others here. So when they’re looking for a little bit of a harder edge for the up-tempo bits of “The Musical Box”, he shrugs his shoulders and offers a sample of what he can do. The band is quite enthused.
Phil: I never saw Family, the group Family, but there was a thing they used to do called The Weaver, I think. (Ed note: “The Weaver’s Answer”) Which was like...kind of a rolling thing. And I had a pretty good foot, you know. So I could [do it too]. And they kinda liked that. So I put that with their rhythm and suddenly it was like “Whoa, hey, we’re off!” 2
Developments have been promising on “Manipulation” and it seems like it’s going to become a proper Genesis song. Peter has been writing lyrics that work as a natural extension of his creative storytelling skills, inspired by sights from his youth, flights of fancy, and good old fashioned young male lust. This story will end up lending the song its final title: “The Musical Box”.
Peter: I think my head at the time also was in this Victoriana world which I pictured around the house my dad had grown up in. So this sort of controlled English mental landscape under which festered violence and sex was the sort of flavor that I was trying to bring into the lyrics and vocals. 5
Anthony Phillips leaves Genesis for personal reasons, taking with him the hopes for songs like “Let Us Now Make Love”, “Silver Song”, and others. The promising song “F#” however - known now as “Manipulation” thanks to the television special - survives the jump and continues to be developed by the remaining three members of the band; three, because Trespass drummer John Mayhew is fired in the wake of Phillips’ departure. The BBC special will never air.
Mike: Parts of it were around when John Mayhew was still with the band... A long time ago we did some music to go with this guy’s paintings for the BBC which never in fact got shown. But we recorded it and “Musical Box” was one of the sections on it - a fairly short bit, but that was the basis of it. It went through a couple of drafts. 1
Genesis, working diligently to continue building upon Trespass, see “F#” as being another “journey song” in the “Stagnation” mold; an acoustic piece that will go between different ideas and moods without ever returning to any of them along the way. Peter, wary of the song remaining stuck in a gentle folk rut, lobbies for at least one section of harder playing for the sake of contrast. The band also get a gig with the BBC, allowing them to record four work-in-progress songs to be used as soundtracks to a series of paintings. The show’s production crew assigns each song to a named painting, which effectively gives each of those songs a new working title. “F#” is selected by the band to be one of the four songs.
Tony: It was a very atmospheric piece. And it was musically interesting. And it went through all these changes and other stuff. It was a sort of precursor perhaps of what was to come later. You know, we have the little bits and lack of repetition in the song. You start off with one bit, which is a really strong section, that opening part, but it never comes back again, you know? And we used to quite like doing that. Like using a bit once and then going to a very loud bit, and a very quiet bit, and another loud bit, then a sort of serene bit. I think it’s a song with a lot of contrasts in it, which for some people is very appealing. But some people just find [it] irritating, because it never centers into a groove, you know. You’re doing one thing, “This is great,” then “Ohh, it’s stopped again,” a time change and everything. So it is a very sort of typical Genesis song. Followed on from “Stagnation” I suppose, you know that same kind of thing, but perhaps a little bit more dramatic. 2
Peter: Mike started off with the first [chords] and I was a big fan of The Who, too. And I really wanted to try and persuade Mike to find something like a little Townshend arm-waving, ballsy attacking section that we could add in there. And I think I was pushing really hard for that... And it was I think exciting when that sort of first came to gel as a piece. 5
Tony: “The Musical Box” developed out of the kind of things we’d been doing a bit around the time of Trespass. 10
Excited by what his writing partner has come up with, Ant goes to work on “F#”, dressing up the rudimentary guitar parts with ones that sounded a bit more robust and interesting. As they have many times before, Mike and Ant play their 12-string guitars together to really enrich the sound and begin developing the piece out a little bit, unsure whether anything might come of their efforts.
Tony: It...developed right from the early days out of playing with Ant and Mike. And so it had that sort of two guitar thing. And I played guitar on it as well. The first part of it is all guitar. A few ideas came out of that. 3
Tony: It always was more Mike’s thing... Ant certainly embellished those parts and I always felt that Ant should have got a credit on that song as part of the writing team. We then took it somewhere else...That track has the influence of three guitarists on it. 9
Mike experiments with some guitar tunings, looking for songwriting inspiration in strange places, hoping something might just click into place. As a lark, he tunes the top three strings of his 12-string guitar to the same note and plays a few chords. Anthony Phillips likes what he hears and they decide the little bit of playing is good enough to warrant learning and giving a working title. The name “F#” is settled upon: the note that three strings are all tuned to.
Mike: It started with Ant, actually. Ant and I, I think. I’m sure it did. Playing 12-string stuff together. And I had this Rickenbacker guitar, I tuned the strings...I had started to do weird tunings. And this is a very bizarre tuning. All the top three strings are tuned to F#. Which is just mad. But it made that jangly sound. And it meant that that big chord when we go “bom bom” had this lovely open string feeling. 2
Play me my song…
Let’s hear it from the band!
Tony: “Musical Box” is part of a series of songs that built up to “Supper’s Ready”, which was the best of that kind of song - long, acoustic-based numbers that told a story. 1
Mike: “Musical Box” me was “Stagnation” one stage on. It was a quirky, fantasy fairytale story that started quietly, built up and, at the end, had a huge dramatic finish that would be one of our best bits for a long time to come. Even today, when I hear Pete sing, “Now, now, now, now, now” it raises the hairs on the back of my neck. It’s almost annoying: as I’m not a singer, I could never do something so simple that would sound so emotional. 7
Steve: Brian [May]...said to me, he was aware of the early Genesis material, in particular, “Musical Box”... And I played there a harmony guitar solo on the end of that, and he said to me that I had influenced him. I was completely out of way with this because I always thought that his harmony guitar style was something which he really came up with and pioneered. 11
1. NME, 1977
2. 2008 Box Set
3. Melody Maker, 1972
4. Genesis - The Songbook
5. Trouser Press, 1982
6. Steve Hackett, 2020
7. Mike Rutherford - The Living Years
8. The Waiting Room, 1996
9. The Waiting Room, 1994
10. Genesis: Chapter & Verse
11. DMME, 2001
submitted by LordChozo to Genesis [link] [comments]

2020.09.22 19:39 jar5624 Sunshine, Angel, and Rainbow Babies

Sunshine, Angel, and Rainbow Babies
A mother’s love for her children is often referred to as one of the strongest and purest types of love. It is said to be unmatched and felt within a woman’s bones, woven through her very being. It’s a love she never knew she possessed, but once found, can never escape. With that said, what happens when a mother loses her infant child to death via miscarriage or stillborn? What should she call her loss? After all, spouses that lose their partner are called widows. Children who lose their parents are called orphans. How can a person describe the emptiness left in the wake of a lost baby when the English language lacks recognition of its very existence? “Sunshine baby”, “angel baby”, and “rainbow baby” are terms that have been created to show recognition of an infant life that was lost to miscarriage or stillborn complications.
An explanation of each of these terms, as well as a window into their collective meaning, is described by [1]Juliet Rose Mallouk: “…the use of the term angel baby [is used] to describe the pregnancy that has been lost. The term sunshine baby, another instance of retrospective categorization, is a baby who was born to a mother before the angel baby, while a healthy child born after a miscarriage, stillbirth, or neonatal death (and the creation of the angel baby category) is known as a rainbow baby. Though I experience a kind of clash of ontologies in attempting to describe the phenomenon of the angel baby, I also recognize that the paradox that I find in the category is, in fact, central to its existence.” To clarify: when the pregnancy is lost, that lost child becomes an angel baby. This now makes a child born prior to the loss (assuming there are older siblings)- a sunshine baby, and a child born following the loss- a rainbow baby.
The unspoken sisterhood of many women, who have lost an infant child prematurely, gather in online communities where women can connect and talk about the struggles they have endured. In the absence of jargon for such an experience, these online groups of mothers have produced the terms of sunshine, angel, and rainbow baby that are now well-known among circles of moms. The exact timing of when this came to fruition is up for debate, but some believe it was around 2008 on one of the online posting boards. Not only does this new language display a mother’s mourning and remembrance for her lost child, but it also displays her celebration of her surviving children. How perfect a meaning?
Many cultures, over the course of history, have often suppressed and dismissed the emotions related to miscarriages and stillborn babies, regardless of its ever-looming existence. Whether society acknowledges this type of experience, it does not change the fact that a mother still has to deal with the psychological effects. The purpose buried underneath these new terms are the need for grievance. [2]Rebecca Jean Wright explains further: “Requisite for any grief journey is the task of assigning meaning to one’s loss. Making meaning of one’s loss does not then suddenly render the loss tolerable, acceptable or reasonable. No reason could ever be good enough or acceptable to satisfy the griever. Rather, the search for meaning relates to trying to make sense of one’s life after loss. By creating meaning, one is better able to gain some control over and find order in the chaos of grieving. Assigning meaning to a miscarriage is challenging, due in part to the ambiguous nature of miscarriage, and it is more than likely an iterative process that evolves over time.”
As this relates to folklore, you can see that a folk group has formed under the united cause of maternity, miscarriage, and a need for expression. The terms sunshine baby, angel baby, and rainbow baby are an artistic way of demonstrating this collective cause. These types of interactions (already built into society or created on a blog) that allow us to reflect on the meaning of our lives and allow us to make connections with the rest of the world are the most important of all.
[1] Mallouk, Juliet Rose, Managing Motherhood Online: Authority, Assemblage, and Fetal Personhood. (Bard College, 2017), 43.

[2] Wright, Rebecca Jean. Women of Advanced Maternal Age and Miscarriage: An Examination of the Essence of the Experience. (Michigan State University, 2013), 74.
Mallouk, Juliet Rose. "Managing Motherhood Online: Authority, Assemblage, and Fetal Personhood." Bard College, 2017. Senior Projects Spring 2017. 7.
Wright, Rebecca Jean. "Women of Advanced Maternal Age and Miscarriage: An Examination of the Essence of the Experience." Michigan State University, 2013.
submitted by jar5624 to Folklorestudies [link] [comments]

2020.09.22 13:46 Super_Gopnik Pénisz- és herekínzás (Wikipédia)

Pénisz- és herekínzás[bevezető szerkesztése]Ellenőrizetlen változat

A Wikipédiából, a szabad enciklopédiábólUgrás a navigációhozUgrás a kereséshez📷Erényövek a 2011-es Dore Alley Fairről
A pénisz- és herekínzás (angolul cock and ball torture, röviden CBT), vagy péniszkínzás olyan szexuális tevékenység, melynek során fájdalmat és/vagy szorítást okoznak a pénisznek és/vagy a heréknek). A CBT olyan fájdalmas tevékenységeket foglal magába, mint például a péniszpiercing, játék viasszal, genitális verés, szorítás, herekínzás, péniszkorbácsolás, a húgycsővel való játszás, kínzás csiklandozással, erotikus elektrostimuláció, térdelés vagy rúgás.[1] Az ilyen tevékenységek kedvezményezettje közvetlen mazochizmus révén érezhet fizikai élvezetet, erotikus megaláztatás révén érzelmi örömöt, vagy felizgathatja annak tudása, hogy a játék a szadista domináns félnek örvendetes. Ezen gyakorlatok közül sok jelentős egészségügyi kockázatot hordoz.[2]


Eszközök és használatuk[szerkesztés]

Sok más szexuális tevékenységhez hasonlóan a CBT is végezhető különböző szexuális játékszerekkel és eszközökkel, hogy a pénisz és a herék könnyebben hozzáférhetőek legyenek aktushoz vagy előjátékhoz).[3][4]


📷Fém herenyújtó és péniszgyűrű, amely kikényszeríti a pénisz erekcióját.
A herenyújtó egy szexuális játékszer, amelyet arra használnak, hogy meghosszabbítsák a herezacskót, és olyan súlyt helyeznek a herére, melytől azok elhúzódnak a testtől. Ez különösen a viselő számára élvezetes, mivel az eszköz megakadályozza, hogy a herék felfelé mozogjanak, s ez intenzívebbé teszi az orgazmust. Milvel az eszköz célja, hogy a herék sokkal alacsonyabban lógjanak, mint korábban, ez a szexuális játék potenciálisan káros lehet a férfi nemi szervekre, ha hosszabb ideig rendszeresen használják, mivel a vérkeringés könnyen megszakad, ha túlságosan szorosra húzzák.
A bőrből készült nyújtók a leggyakoribbak, más modellek pedig acélgyűrűkből állnak, melyek csavarokkal rögzíthetők, és ezáltal a viselő heréinek csak enyhén kellemetlen érzést okoznak. Az eszköz kb. 2-10 cm közötti változatokban elérhető.[5] Ezeknél veszélyesebb a házilag készített nyújtó kötél vagy zsinór használatával.


A hereaprító egy fémből vagy gyakran átlátszó akrilből készült eszköz, mely egy anya vagy csavar elforgatásával, lassan nyomja meg a heréket. A szorítás mértéke természetesen a viselő fájdalomtűrő képességétől függ. A hereaprítót gyakran használják együtt kötözéssel, akár partner(ek)kel, akár egyedüt.


Az ún. ejtőernyő egy általában bőrből készült kicsi öv, amely a herezacskó körül rögzül, és amelyre súlyok függeszthetőek fel. Az eszköz kúpos alakú és három vagy négy rövid lánc lóg róla, amelyhez a súlyok rögzíthetők.
Az ejtőernyőt BDSM kapcsolatokban használják a pénisz és a here kínzásának részeként, mivel húzó és szorító hatást fejt ki a herékre. A láncokra általában 3 és 5 kg közti súlyokat függesztenek, különösen kötözés során, bár néha ennék sokkal nehezebb súlyokat is használnak. Kisebb súlyok is használhatók abban az esetben, ha a viselő szabadon mozoghat; ilyenkor a súly lengő hatása korlátozhatja a hirtelen mozdulatokat és vizuális ingert adhat a domináns partner számára.

Heretágító (humbler)[szerkesztés]

📷Férfi heretágítóval
A heretágító (angolul humbler) egy BDSM eszköz, amelyet arra használnak, hogy korlátozza a szubmisszív férfi résztvevő mozgását.
A tágító gyakorlatilag egy herebilincs, mely a herezacskó töve körül helyezkedik el, egy combok mögött, a fenék alatt áthaladó rúd közepén. Ez arra kényszeríti a viselőjét, hogy térdelő helyzetben tartsa a lábát, mivel a lábak egyenesítésének még kis mértékű kísérlete is erősen meghúzza a herezacskót, ez pedig kellemetlen érzést okoz, mely a közepes kényelmetlenségtől az extrém fájdalomig terjedő skálán terjed.


A herebilincs egy gyűrű alakú eszköz a here és a test között, a herezacskó körül, amely bezárva nem engedi, hogy a here áthaladjon rajta. Ez általában két összekapcsolt karikából áll, az egyik a herezacskó, a másik a pénisz alapja körül. A herebilincs csak egy a sokféle eszköz közül, melyek fogvatartják a férfi nemi szerveket. A here körül rögzíthető, ezáltal bilincsként alkalmazható akár egy közönséges lakat is, melyet kulcs nélkül nem lehet eltávolítani.
Egyes passzív férfiak élvezik a partnerük általi birtoklást, a domináns felek pedig a tulajdonlás érzetét. Az iyen kapcsolatokban a bilincs azt szimbolizálja, hogy nemi szervei a férfi/női partneréhez tartoznak. Ez gyakran megalázással párosul, mely további szexuális izgalmat okoz. A bilincs a viselője vagy partnere szexuális fétisének részét is képezheti.
Ezek azonban a herebilincsek extrém felhasználásai. Általánosabban fogalmazva, az eszköz lehúzza a heréket és ott tartja azokat a stimuláció során, amelynek számos előnye van:


A herehám egy szexuális játék, amelyet úgy terveztek, hogy a pénisz és a herezacskó körül legyen hordható. Funkciója hasonló a péniszgyűrűhöz. Ezek az eszközök gyakran társulnak különböző BDSM tevékenységekhez. A The Gates of Hell egy CBT-hez használható férfi erényöv, amely több péniszgyűrűből áll.[6] A Kali's Teeth egy fémgyűrű belső tüskékkel, mely bezáródik a pénisz körül, ezáltal használható az erekció megelőzésére vagy büntetésére.[7]


📷Herekínzás: Egy nő herénrúgja szubmisszív partnerét az USA-beli Folsom Street Fair-en
A herekínzás a herék rúgásából vagy térdeléséből álló szexuális gyakorlat. Számos orvosi kockázatot hordoz magában, pl. a hereszakadás veszélyét.

CBT Japánban[szerkesztés]

A Tamakeri (玉蹴り, „hererúgás”) egy szexuális fétis és a BDSM egyik alfajtája, mely a herék bántalmazásából áll. A műfajt ballbustingnak (röviden „bb”) is nevezik.[8][9] A Tamakeri egy japán kifejezés, de sok nem japán ember is használja azon filmek leírására, melyeken ázsiai emberek - főként nők - vesznek részt ebben a fétisben. A tamakeri egy mazochista és egy szadista félből áll, értelemszerűen ez utóbbi okoz fájdalmat az előbbi heréinek.[10] A fétis népszerű heteroszexuális és homoszexuális férfiak és nők körében is.[11]
A Denkianma (電気按摩, „elektromos masszázs”) egy népszerű japán tréfa, melynek során az egyik ember a lábát a másik nemi területére helyezi, és rezgő mozgással rázza meg.[12][13] Ezt gyakran úgy hajtják végre, hogy megragadják a másik ember lábát, felemelik azt, majd azt az ágyékukhoz helyezik és rezegtetik. A csínyt, mely hasonlít az Ázsiában szintén elterjedt kanchō-hoz, gyakran játszák iskoláskorú fiúk egymás között. A Doritos chipscég 2006-ban kiadott egy Denkianma nevű burgonyachipset.[14]


A véráramlás elvesztése az egyik legnagyobb kockázat a pénisz- és herekínzás során, amely színvesztéssel és ödémával járhat.[15] Különösen veszélyes a herék más dolgokhoz való kötözése, mert ez növeli annak kockázatát, hogy a herék megsérüljenek túlzott nyomás vagy húzás következtében.
A legsúlyosabb lehetséges sérülések a here repedése, a herék torziója és a herék avulziója, melyek sürgős orvosi ellátást igénylő vészhelyzetek.[16]


  1. Langdridge, Darren. Safe, sane, and consensual: contemporary perspectives on sadomasochism. Palgrave Macmillan, 174. o. (2008). ISBN 978-0-230-51774-5. Hozzáférés ideje: 2016. október 21.
  2. Sydney Lee (2017-01-29), Ballbusting 101, <>. Hozzáférés ideje: 2019-05-02
  3. Thomas: Why Some Men Love Getting Their Penises Tortured (angol nyelven). [2019. május 2-i dátummal az eredetiből archiválva]. (Hozzáférés: 2019. május 2.)
  4. Krishnan: We Asked a Cock and Ball Torture Expert About the Art of Dilating Urethras (kanadai angol nyelven). Vice, 2017. március 14. [2019. május 2-i dátummal az eredetiből archiválva]. (Hozzáférés: 2019. május 2.)
  5. Hartley, Nina. Nina Hartley's Guide to Total Sex. Avery, 136. o. (2006). ISBN 978-1-58333-263-4. Hozzáférés ideje: 2016. október 21.
  6. The Strict Leather Gates of Hell Review. Gritty Woman, 2015. június 17. [2019. március 22-i dátummal az eredetiből archiválva]. (Hozzáférés: 2018. július 24.)
  7. Kali's Teeth Anti Erection Device. Femina Rising, 1995. [2018. július 24-i dátummal az eredetiből archiválva]. (Hozzáférés: 2018. július 24.)
  8. tamakeri - Wiktionary. [2019. április 2-i dátummal az eredetiből archiválva]. (Hozzáférés: 2019. május 2.)
  9. Word of the Week: Tamakeri. Posting Maven, 2015. március 30. [2019. november 15-i dátummal az eredetiből archiválva]. (Hozzáférés: 2018. december 12.)
  10. What is Tamakeri? - Definition from Kinkly (angol nyelven). [2019. április 2-i dátummal az eredetiből archiválva]. (Hozzáférés: 2019. május 2.)
  11. Tamakeri. Japan for the Uninvited, 2006. június 23. [2019. április 2-i dátummal az eredetiből archiválva]. (Hozzáférés: 2019. május 2.)
  12. "Denki Anma": The Japanese traditional torment that you'll be glad stays in Japan (angol nyelven). SoraNews24, 2014. március 27. [2019. május 2-i dátummal az eredetiből archiválva]. (Hozzáférés: 2019. május 2.)
  13. Wiki - denki anma - Danbooru. [2019. május 2-i dátummal az eredetiből archiválva]. (Hozzáférés: 2019. május 2.)
  14. Denki Anma Attack JapanNewbie., 2013. október 9. [2019. november 9-i dátummal az eredetiből archiválva]. (Hozzáférés: 2019. május 2.)
  15. Dirk: Cock Torture: Health and Safety. Deviants' Dictionary. [2013. december 29-i dátummal az eredetiből archiválva]. (Hozzáférés: 2011. április 16.)
  16. Dirk: Ball Torture: Health and Safety. Deviants' Dictionary. [2013. július 30-i dátummal az eredetiből archiválva]. (Hozzáférés: 2011. április 16.)

Kapcsolódó oldalak[szerkesztés]

📷A Wikimédia Commons tartalmaz Pénisz- és herekínzás témájú médiaállományokat.

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submitted by Super_Gopnik to masolatteszta [link] [comments]

2020.09.19 19:57 jPup_VR Seems like a good time to bring up LifeLog- DARPA's plan for an all-knowing civilian database that 'coincidentally' got cancelled on February 4th 2004, the very same day that Facebook launched.

Main point starts in the 4th heading, "What the hell is LifeLog" (the big text) and finishes in "Finally, the coincidence:" but the full read is recommended for context- including links.
I'm going to link sources here so as to avoid any accusations of speculation. I am not speculating anything here, only providing information. You can freely take that information in and come to your own conclusions. I encourage anyone who disagrees to engage with the information and participate in the discussion below, rather than downvoting others doing so. If the point you're trying to make relies on diminishing someone else's point through anything other than a solid argument, then your point is likely not very good.
Also if we can avoid the whataboutism logical fallacy and deflection of "but other companies track you too!" that would be great. We should criticize them as well.
Finally, if you just "don't care" about all this, then please continue to not care elsewhere, as stating that it doesn't bother you does nothing to further the conversation.
So as we all know now, Oculus services are now going to require a Facebook account- an account that must be registered under your legal name.
There's been a lot of talk of 'dummy accounts' here- users who wish to intentionally obscure their identity and information in order to avoid Facebook's abuse of their data. The problem is that when such an account is detected (this happens very quickly- especially when you're purchasing games using a credit/debit card with your name on it), it becomes locked/banned until the users identity is confirmed by sending Facebook a photo of their government issued ID.
We all know of Facebook's extensive controversies regarding privacy and handling of user data- see Wikipedia's article 'Criticism of Facebook' or 'Privacy Concerns of Facebook', or the time Facebook admitted that it tracks and profiles data on everyone- even those without a Facebook account- and does so all across the web, specifically anywhere with a 'Like' or 'Share on Facebook' button.
All this discussion got me thinking, "why?"
Why would they force users who've opted to only use an Oculus account up until this point to connect through Facebook?
Well for that, I'm sure they have plenty of reasons- but more than anything it just reminded me of the time that Facebook demanded I send in a photo of my government issued ID.
That too, left me scratching my head wondering why... and the research I did regarding that ordeal ultimately lead me to the information I'm about to share here:
DARPA's Life Log project and it's apparent dissolution on the day of Facebook's founding.

What the hell is Life Log?

First outed by WIRED in May of 2003, Life Log is separate from DARPA's controversial "Total Information Awareness" predictive policing program.
LifeLog was a [civillian] user-facing tool whereby an individual would submit information of various kinds to an ongoing database in order to catalogue their life experience.
A more detailed explanation here:
"LifeLog aimed to compile a massive electronic database of every activity and relationship a person engages in. This was to include credit card purchases, web sites visited, the content of telephone calls and e-mails sent and received, scans of faxes and postal mail sent and received, instant messages sent and received, books and magazines read, television and radio selections, physical location recorded via wearable GPS sensors, biomedical data captured through wearable sensors. The high level goal of this data logging was to identify "preferences, plans, goals, and other markers of intentionality".
Another of DARPA’s goals for LifeLog had a predictive function. It sought to “find meaningful patterns in the timeline, to infer the user’s routines, habits, and relationships with other people, organizations, places, and objects, and to exploit these patterns to ease its task"
Vice explained it as:
An ambitious program aimed at recording essentially all of a person's movements and conversations and everything they listened to, watched, read and bought.
I can imagine reading that in 2004 would've been pretty shocking, but by today's standards it's pedestrian.
Whether it's on Facebook, Instagram, Reddit, YouTube, TikTok, Tinder, Venmo, or any other form of social media- all of the things described above have come to pass- the only exception being that all of it is done through private organizations rather than government-mandated software.
But why not?
Why did LifeLog never see the light of day?
Well in short, civil liberties activists and organizations like the ACLU thrust it into the public debate- citing the obvious privacy concerns and potential for abuse from the government agencies and individuals running the system. This was cited in this Wired article from the day the project was closed.
An interviewee in the article says (in spite of the public scrutiny and cancellation):
"I am sure that such research will continue to be funded under some other title. I can't imagine DARPA 'dropping out' of such a key research area."

Finally, the coincidence:

So DARPA- the US Government's foremost authority on military/intelligence research and development, with an annual budget of more than $3,000,000,000- put an extraordinary amount of effort into designing this platform:
Facebook’s 2008 round of funding was led by Greylock Venture Capital, which invested $27.5 million. The firm’s senior partners include Howard Cox, another former NVCA chair who also sits on the board of In-Q-Tel. Apart from Breyer and Zuckerberg, Facebook’s only other board member [at time of quote] is Peter Thiel, co-founder of defense contractor Palantir which provides all sorts of data-mining and visualization technologies to US government, military and intelligence agencies, including the NSA and FBI, and which itself was nurtured to financial viability by Highlands Forum members.
Above quote taken from the Medium article, "How The CIA Made Google"


So did the players behind Total Information Awareness and LifeLog abandon ship, or is it possible they just shifted gears- realizing that the majority of people would willingly participate, so long as they were doing so through a seemingly private tech company rather than a .gov portal?
At the end of the day, we don't know.
Those who will say "this is not the case" can't be any more sure of that than those who claim with certainty that it is.
We'll leave it at a definitive "maybe", though I'd be omitting some truth to not say that I personally lean towards "probably".
If Facebook isn't just a 'private' continuation of LifeLog... their literally-simultaneous closing and founding sure is one hell of a coincidence.
submitted by jPup_VR to OculusQuest [link] [comments]

2020.09.19 19:55 jPup_VR Seems like a good time to bring up LifeLog- DARPA's plan for an all-knowing civilian database that 'coincidentally' got cancelled on February 4th 2004, the very same day that Facebook launched.

Main point starts in the 4th heading, "What the hell is LifeLog" (the big text) and finishes in "Finally, the coincidence:" but the full read is recommended for context- including links.
I'm going to link sources here so as to avoid any accusations of speculation. I am not speculating anything here, only providing information. You can freely take that information in and come to your own conclusions. I encourage anyone who disagrees to engage with the information and participate in the discussion below, rather than downvoting others doing so. If the point you're trying to make relies on diminishing someone else's point through anything other than a solid argument, then your point is likely not very good.
Also if we can avoid the whataboutism logical fallacy and deflection of "but other companies track you too!" that would be great. We should criticize them as well.
Finally, if you just "don't care" about all this, then please continue to not care elsewhere, as stating that it doesn't bother you does nothing to further the conversation.
So as we all know now, Oculus services are now going to require a Facebook account- an account that must be registered under your legal name.
There's been a lot of talk of 'dummy accounts' here- users who wish to intentionally obscure their identity and information in order to avoid Facebook's abuse of their data. The problem is that when such an account is detected (this happens very quickly- especially when you're purchasing games using a credit/debit card with your name on it), it becomes locked/banned until the users identity is confirmed by sending Facebook a photo of their government issued ID.
We all know of Facebook's extensive controversies regarding privacy and handling of user data- see Wikipedia's article 'Criticism of Facebook' or 'Privacy Concerns of Facebook', or the time Facebook admitted that it tracks and profiles data on everyone- even those without a Facebook account- and does so all across the web, specifically anywhere with a 'Like' or 'Share on Facebook' button.
All this discussion got me thinking, "why?"
Why would they force users who've opted to only use an Oculus account up until this point to connect through Facebook?
Well for that, I'm sure they have plenty of reasons- but more than anything it just reminded me of the time that Facebook demanded I send in a photo of my government issued ID.
That too, left me scratching my head wondering why... and the research I did regarding that ordeal ultimately lead me to the information I'm about to share here:
DARPA's Life Log project and it's apparent dissolution on the day of Facebook's founding.

What the hell is Life Log?

First outed by WIRED in May of 2003, Life Log is separate from DARPA's controversial "Total Information Awareness" predictive policing program.
LifeLog was a [civillian] user-facing tool whereby an individual would submit information of various kinds to an ongoing database in order to catalogue their life experience.
A more detailed explanation here:
"LifeLog aimed to compile a massive electronic database of every activity and relationship a person engages in. This was to include credit card purchases, web sites visited, the content of telephone calls and e-mails sent and received, scans of faxes and postal mail sent and received, instant messages sent and received, books and magazines read, television and radio selections, physical location recorded via wearable GPS sensors, biomedical data captured through wearable sensors. The high level goal of this data logging was to identify "preferences, plans, goals, and other markers of intentionality".
Another of DARPA’s goals for LifeLog had a predictive function. It sought to “find meaningful patterns in the timeline, to infer the user’s routines, habits, and relationships with other people, organizations, places, and objects, and to exploit these patterns to ease its task"
Vice explained it as:
An ambitious program aimed at recording essentially all of a person's movements and conversations and everything they listened to, watched, read and bought.
I can imagine reading that in 2004 would've been pretty shocking, but by today's standards it's pedestrian.
Whether it's on Facebook, Instagram, Reddit, YouTube, TikTok, Tinder, Venmo, or any other form of social media- all of the things described above have come to pass- the only exception being that all of it is done through private organizations rather than government-mandated software.
But why not?
Why did LifeLog never see the light of day?
Well in short, civil liberties activists and organizations like the ACLU thrust it into the public debate- citing the obvious privacy concerns and potential for abuse from the government agencies and individuals running the system. This was cited in this Wired article from the day the project was closed.
An interviewee in the article says (in spite of the public scrutiny and cancellation):
"I am sure that such research will continue to be funded under some other title. I can't imagine DARPA 'dropping out' of such a key research area."

Finally, the coincidence:

So DARPA- the US Government's foremost authority on military/intelligence research and development, with an annual budget of more than $3,000,000,000- put an extraordinary amount of effort into designing this platform:
Facebook’s 2008 round of funding was led by Greylock Venture Capital, which invested $27.5 million. The firm’s senior partners include Howard Cox, another former NVCA chair who also sits on the board of In-Q-Tel. Apart from Breyer and Zuckerberg, Facebook’s only other board member [at time of quote] is Peter Thiel, co-founder of defense contractor Palantir which provides all sorts of data-mining and visualization technologies to US government, military and intelligence agencies, including the NSA and FBI, and which itself was nurtured to financial viability by Highlands Forum members.
Above quote taken from the Medium article, "How The CIA Made Google"


So did the players behind Total Information Awareness and LifeLog abandon ship, or is it possible they just shifted gears- realizing that the majority of people would willingly participate, so long as they were doing so through a seemingly private tech company rather than a .gov portal?
At the end of the day, we don't know.
Those who will say "this is not the case" can't be any more sure of that than those who claim with certainty that it is.
We'll leave it at a definitive "maybe", though I'd be omitting some truth to not say that I personally lean towards "probably".
If Facebook isn't just a 'private' continuation of LifeLog... their literally-simultaneous closing and founding sure is one hell of a coincidence.
submitted by jPup_VR to virtualreality [link] [comments]

2020.09.19 19:53 jPup_VR Seems like a good time to bring up LifeLog- DARPA's plan for an all-knowing civilian database that 'coincidentally' got cancelled on February 4th 2004, the very same day that Facebook launched.

Main point starts in the 4th heading, "What the hell is LifeLog" (the big text) and finishes in "Finally, the coincidence:" but the full read is recommended for context- including links.
I'm going to link sources here so as to avoid any accusations of speculation. I am not speculating anything here, only providing information. You can freely take that information in and come to your own conclusions. I encourage anyone who disagrees to engage with the information and participate in the discussion below, rather than downvoting others doing so. If the point you're trying to make relies on diminishing someone else's point through anything other than a solid argument, then your point is likely not very good.
Also if we can avoid the whataboutism logical fallacy and deflection of "but other companies track you too!" that would be great. We should criticize them as well.
Finally, if you just "don't care" about all this, then please continue to not care elsewhere, as stating that it doesn't bother you does nothing to further the conversation.
So as we all know now, Oculus services are now going to require a Facebook account- an account that must be registered under your legal name.
There's been a lot of talk of 'dummy accounts' here- users who wish to intentionally obscure their identity and information in order to avoid Facebook's abuse of their data. The problem is that when such an account is detected (this happens very quickly- especially when you're purchasing games using a credit/debit card with your name on it), it becomes locked/banned until the users identity is confirmed by sending Facebook a photo of their government issued ID.
We all know of Facebook's extensive controversies regarding privacy and handling of user data- see Wikipedia's article 'Criticism of Facebook' or 'Privacy Concerns of Facebook', or the time Facebook admitted that it tracks and profiles data on everyone- even those without a Facebook account- and does so all across the web, specifically anywhere with a 'Like' or 'Share on Facebook' button.
All this discussion got me thinking, "why?"
Why would they force users who've opted to only use an Oculus account up until this point to connect through Facebook?
Well for that, I'm sure they have plenty of reasons- but more than anything it just reminded me of the time that Facebook demanded I send in a photo of my government issued ID.
That too, left me scratching my head wondering why... and the research I did regarding that ordeal ultimately lead me to the information I'm about to share here:
DARPA's Life Log project and it's apparent dissolution on the day of Facebook's founding.

What the hell is Life Log?

First outed by WIRED in May of 2003, Life Log is separate from DARPA's controversial "Total Information Awareness" predictive policing program.
LifeLog was a [civillian] user-facing tool whereby an individual would submit information of various kinds to an ongoing database in order to catalogue their life experience.
A more detailed explanation here:
"LifeLog aimed to compile a massive electronic database of every activity and relationship a person engages in. This was to include credit card purchases, web sites visited, the content of telephone calls and e-mails sent and received, scans of faxes and postal mail sent and received, instant messages sent and received, books and magazines read, television and radio selections, physical location recorded via wearable GPS sensors, biomedical data captured through wearable sensors. The high level goal of this data logging was to identify "preferences, plans, goals, and other markers of intentionality".
Another of DARPA’s goals for LifeLog had a predictive function. It sought to “find meaningful patterns in the timeline, to infer the user’s routines, habits, and relationships with other people, organizations, places, and objects, and to exploit these patterns to ease its task"
Vice explained it as:
An ambitious program aimed at recording essentially all of a person's movements and conversations and everything they listened to, watched, read and bought.
I can imagine reading that in 2004 would've been pretty shocking, but by today's standards it's pedestrian.
Whether it's on Facebook, Instagram, Reddit, YouTube, TikTok, Tinder, Venmo, or any other form of social media- all of the things described above have come to pass- the only exception being that all of it is done through private organizations rather than government-mandated software.
But why not?
Why did LifeLog never see the light of day?
Well in short, civil liberties activists and organizations like the ACLU thrust it into the public debate- citing the obvious privacy concerns and potential for abuse from the government agencies and individuals running the system. This was cited in this Wired article from the day the project was closed.
An interviewee in the article says (in spite of the public scrutiny and cancellation):
"I am sure that such research will continue to be funded under some other title. I can't imagine DARPA 'dropping out' of such a key research area."

Finally, the coincidence:

So DARPA- the US Government's foremost authority on military/intelligence research and development, with an annual budget of more than $3,000,000,000- put an extraordinary amount of effort into designing this platform:
Facebook’s 2008 round of funding was led by Greylock Venture Capital, which invested $27.5 million. The firm’s senior partners include Howard Cox, another former NVCA chair who also sits on the board of In-Q-Tel. Apart from Breyer and Zuckerberg, Facebook’s only other board member [at time of quote] is Peter Thiel, co-founder of defense contractor Palantir which provides all sorts of data-mining and visualization technologies to US government, military and intelligence agencies, including the NSA and FBI, and which itself was nurtured to financial viability by Highlands Forum members.
Above quote taken from the Medium article, "How The CIA Made Google"


So did the players behind Total Information Awareness and LifeLog abandon ship, or is it possible they just shifted gears- realizing that the majority of people would willingly participate, so long as they were doing so through a seemingly private tech company rather than a .gov portal?
At the end of the day, we don't know.
Those who will say "this is not the case" can't be any more sure of that than those who claim with certainty that it is.
We'll leave it at a definitive "maybe", though I'd be omitting some truth to not say that I personally lean towards "probably".
If Facebook isn't just a 'private' continuation of LifeLog... their literally-simultaneous closing and founding sure is one hell of a coincidence.
submitted by jPup_VR to oculus [link] [comments]

2020.09.19 03:55 TopGolfUFO On February 24th of 2019 Tyler Davis vanished from Easton Shopping Center in Columbus OH under mysterious circumstances. In the short time since, his wife, mother in law, and his friends have been doxxed, harassed and borderline stalked by internet sleuths who are determined to solve his case.

Brittany Davis first met her husband Tyler at work in 2013, Tyler was her boss but the two became fast friends. Their relationship evolved from friendly co-workers to best friends to romantic partners. Brittany said nobody can make her laugh like Tyler does, she also described him as a wonderful father and husband, truly a “great provider.” In 2017 Brittany and Tyler were married and they had a son who they named Aaron. They lived in Wilmington, Ohio, a small town nestled between Cincinnati and Columbus. It is consistently mentioned as one of the best small towns in America and a wonderful place for suburban families who want to get away from the hustle and bustle of the big city without being too far from its comforts.
The couple lived a quiet life, more content to spend an evening at home rather than a wild one out on the town. Both Tyler and Brittany worked nights. He would often get home around 4 am, and she worked well into the early morning hours as a bartender. Despite the challenges presented by their unique schedules, they made sure to find time to spend together. Every year they made a special trip, even if it was just for a day, on both their birthdays and their anniversary.
Brittany’s birthday was February 24th, and the couple had planned a weekend getaway to nearby Columbus. In the early morning hours of February 23rd 2019 Tyler got home from work around 4AM. He’d been pulling extra hours and was tired, but excited for the trip he and Brittany had planned the next day. They both went to bed around 5 am and were planning on getting up early enough to meet Tyler’s parents in Columbus around noon. However they both overslept, waking up around 12:30 and not getting out of the house until after one. Eventually they met up with Tyler’s parents at an outback Steakhouse on Stringtown road and enjoyed a relaxing lunch with them. Following lunch they left their son with his grandparents and headed north, stopping at a speedway gas station on Stringtown before the 71 on-ramp to get gas.
They arrived at their Hilton hotel around 4 or 5 pm, and got settled in. The couple had contacted their friends that lived in Columbus, Brittany’s friends had been busy, but luckily one of Tyler’s close friends was free. He made the quick ten-minute drive from his house over to Easton. The friend's name was Schon Hughes, and although his name was initially withheld from the public, the lead detective on the case used it freely in a press conference, and Schon himself has since given an interview thus his name is already in the public record.
Schon and Tyler had been friends for years, and although Schon moved an hour away to Columbus, they would still take the time to visit each other. When Tyler knew he wanted to propose to Brittany, Schon had even helped him design her engagement ring.
When Schon arrived at the Hilton, Brittany was just finishing up getting ready for their evening out. The trio hung around and caught up for a while and watched what Brittany described as “some trashy tv”. They lazed around until around 8:30 when they decided to go out on the town. They were planning on shopping and getting a couples massage the next day, so mostly just wanted to drink a bit and explore.
They had drinks at bar Louie and Adobe Gilas and were all somewhat inebriated by the time they were finished. Brittany drank mixed drinks, and Tyler had shots, and it was actually the first time ever the couple had gone out to a bar to drink together. Brittany was only 23, they had a young son, and she worked at a bar for her job, so any of these reasons could have been contributing factors as to why they'd never gone out drinking together. It is also possible that they just weren’t big drinkers. Either way, Brittany was feeling adventurous and suggested the three go to a strip club, as she’d never been before and wanted to see what it was like.
Following Brittany’s suggestion, they ordered an uber and decided to head to the Dollhouse, a strip club in a nice part of town. They ended up hanging out and drinking until around 2:30AM and at one point Brittany went out to smoke. She was hesitant to leave her drink at the bar since she knew to never leave a drink alone, but the bar had a strict policy about not allowing guests to bring drinks outside. She ended up leaving it and Tyler helped her finish it later. They had fun, and Brittany said they met some “very nice girls”. Not being from the area they weren’t exactly sure when the bar closed, but at one point Brittany went to the bathroom for a few minutes near the end of the night, when she returned the lights were on. Closing time had snuck up on them, and the bouncer was arguing with Tyler and his friend, saying they had to leave right that minute, but Tyler insisted they had to wait for Brittany. The bouncer seemed skeptical and was trying to get them out of the bar, but when he saw Brittany return, the tension diffused and they left. As pointed out later in Brittany's True Crime Garage interview, the bouncer may have been confrontational because he was used to seeing men trying to hang around after close to bother the girls who worked there.
One review of the Dollhouse mentions a patron out for the night alone, who suspected his drink was spiked with GHB. He said he blacked out after three drinks and doesn’t remember the rest of the night, but his girlfriend said two men dropped him off at his apartment late in the night, covered in cuts and bruises. His card had been maxed out at $2000. He said he filed a police report, but no follow up to the review was posted, and no other reviews mention this. Other negative reviews point to being overcharged, or no “fun” provided with the lap dances, which the owner responded to by saying “They are not a $20 BJ place” so it is worth noting, like with any business some negative reviews may be posted out of spite.
In her Dateline interview, Brittany initially skipped past mentioning the Dollhouse specifically. She just said that they went to various places in the area. The backlash and rampant speculation about the quality of their marriage after this information came out may have been why she wasn’t more forthcoming with that information. To this day, a popular theory on Reddit and Websleuths is that Brittany and Tyler must have been swingers, since they had a male friend with them on Brittany’s birthday, and went to a strip club. And of course, Brittany’s initial omission of the Dollhouse must have meant she had something nefarious to hide.
On the night in question, the trio waited outside for about 20 minutes for an Uber, and Tyler was fairly intoxicated at this point. A girl from the club brought them water and chatted for a minute. When the Uber arrived it was about a 15-20 minute drive back to the hotel and Tyler fell asleep. They got back to the hotel, and the uber driver seemed agitated, because Tyler was confused, and didn’t think they were back at the hotel. He was taking a minute to wake up, and the Uber driver was visibly irritated. Tyler thought he was being kicked out of the Uber early before they got back to the Hilton. Finally, they got out of the car, and Tyler started making a scene since he thought the uber driver left them stranded. He fell at one point and he attempted to flip over a few potted plants, and then stormed off. Brittany’s phone was at 4%, she needed to use the restroom, and Schon told Brittany he would go get Tyler. Tyler only had a 20-25 foot head start, and Schon quickly caught up with him while Brittany went back into the Hilton.
Around 15 minutes later at 3:37 AM Tyler called Brittany back to apologize and say he was just taking a walk and smoking, and would be back soon. In an interview in April of 2019 Schon said that Tyler was absolutely the type to storm off when drinking, he’d done it before and Schon wasn’t about to chase him around all night. Brittany disagreed with this. But she had never been out on the town drinking with Tyler before, whereas Schon had known him for years, and had seen him drinking many times. When asked if they’d had an argument, Schon said it wasn’t so much an argument as him telling Tyler “Hey man, get your ass back to your wife, she’s crying”
Shortly afterward Schon returned to the Hilton and found Brittany standing outside waiting for Tyler. They went back up to the room and Schon reassured Brittany that Tyler just needed to blow off some steam. He told her not to worry and that she should get some sleep
Schon talked to Tyler over the phone around 3:42 for about 8 minutes. He sounded coherent. Schon told him that Brittany was in bed and safe, and Tyler said he was going to try and figure out how to get back. Schon told him to just look for the giant building with the H on the side.
Using digital forensics, CPD traced Tyler’s route on foot from 3:20-3:53 AM. He meandered from the entrance to the Hilton, and ended up in the Easton circle around 3:40 when he was talking to Schon over the phone. Eventually, he ended up near Abbott labs, then started heading toward the Hilton. His last location showed him at the intersection of Steltzer rd and Morse crossing. At this point, he asked his phone to take him to Easton Suites at 3:51. At 3:53 his phone location shut off and CPD could no longer track his location, but he was still near the intersection of Morse and Steltzer rd.
At 4:10 AM Tyler called Brittany again to say he was walking through the woods and could see the hotel. He said he would be there shortly, in five minutes. In the True Crime Garage episode, Brittany stressed that she and Tyler were not outdoorsy people by any means. She said Tyler could look at “three trees in a circle” and call that the woods. They stayed away from the outdoors so much that Tyler managed to still own the same pair of shoes he’d worn in college. There aren’t any seriously wooded areas near Easton, but there are patches of woods, and a wetland area near Abbot labs. It’s enough woods to temporarily get lost in, but one could find their way out walking in any direction for five minutes or so. There are four wooded areas within a half-mile of Tyler’s last phone ping.
Many news sources didn’t report this last phone call accurately. Brittany stressed that Tyler was not confused in this phone call and sounded coherent, but several sources took Tyler’s earlier confusion in the Uber to mean he was confused and incoherent during this phone call. Brittany maintains this was not true, He sounded like he knew where he was. Online sleuths would later criticize Brittany for not being more worried about her “confused and incoherent' husband based on this misreported information. Immediately after the 4:10 call disconnected, Tyler called Brittany back, but when she picked up the line there was just silence for about four seconds. Brittany called him right back, but his phone went straight to voicemail.
Shortly after this, Brittany and Schon walked in opposite directions on the road in front of the hotel to look for Tyler. They didn’t see him, and Brittany was worried, but Schon thought she was overreacting, and they had a mild disagreement. At this point, Tyler had been walking around for nearly an hour without a coat, and while the high that day was 56, the low was 29, and it was a bit windy and rainy on and off. At 4:15 am footage of what the police initially thought was Tyler walking back to the hotel was shown, but this was actually Schon walking back. This incorrect picture was shown during a press conference, but Brittany corrected it on her TCG appearance.
Around 4:30 AM, Schon went home, since he lived about 10 minutes away. Brittany called a few friends for advice, and they told her she was probably worrying too much, and that Tyler would walk through the door at any moment, and everything would be fine. Her friend Harlee talked with her for a while and reassured her that everything was fine. Brittany found it hard to be calm though and called nearby jails, and hospitals, thinking Tyler might have ended up in the drunk tank.
In the early hours of the next morning Brittany got ahold of an old roommate Adam, who arrived at Easton around 8AM. They drove around, thinking maybe Tyler had passed out on a bench. She called her in laws around 9 or 9:30 to tell them what was going on and Tyler’s father started driving up to Easton.
She then called Columbus Police around 10:30-11AM to report Tyler missing. When the police met with her, she gave them a detailed account of his description, and what he was wearing. He was 29 at the time, with brown hair and brown eyes, 5’10 weighing approximately 170 pounds, and wearing dark jeans, a white t-shirt and a dark green flannel. He also has a distinctive birthmark on his arm, going across his chest and up to his neck. The birthmark is visible in a t-shirt. The CPD officer told her that “A 29 year old man can go missing of his own accord, if he chooses” and informed her that there wasn’t much they could do unless he was gone for 72 hours.
Her father in law arrived shortly after and started walking around Easton, looking for his son. Brittany went back to her in-law's house to be with her son for part of the day, but joined her father at Easton to help search in the evening. Brittany and her father in law kept searching until dark. At 1 am they got Easton security involved and let the Hilton know what was going on, and the manager on duty agreed to start pulling footage to look for something useful. A few more friends joined in the search before the day was through. At 8am the next day they stopped searching on foot.
Since that day at least six searches have been conducted of the four wooded areas near Easton. Volunteers and dogs from Search and Rescue OH combed the areas looking for clues. The Columbus dive team searched the Wetlands, and Equisearch looked at two ponds in the immediate area. Helicopters flew over the area when the weather became more dry, hoping to maybe spot something in the wetlands that they hadn’t found before, but all of the searches turned up nothing. Brittany, along with friends and family, still occasionally band together to distribute flyers in the Easton area, and Brittany still calls Tyler’s phone every day.
In March of 2019 Brittany started the Bring Tyler Davis Home Facebook group. She posted information about Tyler and the night he vanished, and the group currently has nearly 10,000 members. As more people joined, Brittany and her family had to moderate and remove posts with rampant speculation. She was then accused of trying to shape the narrative. While criticizing her, online sleuths shared a speeding ticket she got when she was just sixteen years old. They also rifled through her mother, Melissa’s past, at one point saying she had an extensive criminal record. The accusing poster quickly realized they had the wrong Melissa Fields, but rather than apologize, pointed at Melissa’s driving record which had some minor infractions.
The way some networks aired the story didn’t help, as some would only include bits and pieces of Brittany’s story, and one even clipped her statement about all of the things she loved about Tyler down to just “A great provider” leading people to call her a gold digger and say she was just using him for money. One theory on websleuths claims that the reason Tyler was so tired was that Brittany was forcing him to work extra hours so she could have a “nest egg” saved up for when she killed him.
True Crime enthusiast Katie Frederick got banned from Brittany’s group, and started her own called True Crime Junkies - Tyler Davis Missing, Case Discussion. Frederick made it to be a place where people could openly speculate. In Brittany’s group, posts accusing her of murder or criticizing her appearance that added no value to the group were banned, as well as speculation and news stories every time a body was found in Columbus. Brittany had been reading all of it, and friends who helped run the group asked people not to post such content.
Frederick’s group allowed for open discussion, much of which was centered on accusing Brittany of involvement in Tyler’s disappearance. Frederick had initially gotten involved after reading about Tyler’s disappearance on a smiley face killer theory page. This theory claims that men in their twenties who fall into bodies of water while out drinking are actually killed by a gang of serial killers. It’s called the Smiley Face Killer theory, because the supposed calling card of this killer or killers is that smiley face graffiti can be found near where the body was recovered or entered the water. Since Tyler Davis is often mentioned in the same breath as Joey Labute Jr. and Brian Shaffer, who are both associated with the theory, some subscribe to that idea. Joey Labute Jr’s body was found in the Scioto River near Scioto Audubon metro park, and Brian Shaffer is often mentioned with the smiley face theory because he was a drunk man in his twenties, which is the supposed demographic. Since Tyler was a drunk man in his twenties, and there are wetlands near Abbot labs, believers of the theory have been speculating about Tyler Davis since very early on in the case.
Early on Brittany got involved with Lori Davis, who runs the Missing in Ohio facebook group. Lori Davis is a Columbus local who also runs the missing website for Brian Shaffer, and had been very close with Brian Shaffer’s family. Lori helped Brittany assemble a detailed timeline of events the night Tyler vanished, by putting together receipts and phone records. In April of 2019 Britany would go on True Crime Garage, a prolific podcast local to Columbus. Brittany would use her timeline and notes from that night to ensure she was saying accurate information.
After her true crime garage appearance, people accused Brittany of sounding scripted, since she was partly reading from notes she’d compiled since Tyler’s disappearance. The co-host of TCG, the Captain said in her defense “she has very detailed accounts and people were like, 'She sounds scripted.' Well, if your loved one went missing, I'd hope you'd sit down and write down all the facts and anything you can remember, too."
In the first part of the True Crime garage episode, Schon’s name was accidentally left in at one point, although they had tried to censor it throughout. The next day, people on Websleuths were pointing out that it was said, and the Crime Junkies Facebook page was cross-referencing Brittany and Tyler’s pages to find a friend named Schon, though the unusual spelling threw them off. Wanting to help his friend, Schon had posted information about Tyler on his page, and given out his personal number. Online sleuths quickly connected the dots, and eventually someone posted Schons’ name, phone number and home address on websleuths. Possibly Facebook as well but if it was posted there it has quickly been deleted. It was just one day after the release of the podcast that all of Schon’s information was made available to the public.
On may 6th Schon would call True Crime Garage to discuss the case with them and give his account of events. He said that he has been questioned by police, and they looked at him and his wife’s phone records. This small tidbit of information would fuel more pointless facebook discussions, where sleuths would say Schon didn’t “seem like a married man” since he’d gone to a strip club, and been somewhere in the hotel room when Brittany was finishing up showering, meaning he surely must have watched her get dressed. He said there is surveillance footage of them exiting the uber. He also went into detail about a few sightings in Ohio of Tyler. He said they all seemed credible, as they mentioned a man with a distinct birthmark, but none of them ended up being Tyler.
Doxxing was nothing new to Brittany and her mother Melissa. People were threatening to come to Brittany’s house, and calling her to harass her. They called Tyler’s parents as well, and speculation ran rampant that Aaron was actually Schon’s son not Tyler’s. A popular theory online was that the reason Tyler stormed off in the first place was because Brittany and Schon had been flirting. One poster even threatened to call children’s services, alleging that Brittany must have been mistreating her child if she would murder her husband. Meanwhile Schon started getting death threats, and all of the facebook groups involved got more members joining, despite remaining private.
At one point Brittany got involved with 'We can bring you hope' and an organization run by Michelle Helman Bender. Bender got very involved in Tyler’s disappearance, conducting her own “investigation”. Brittany sent Bender her timeline, which included Tyler’s email password, and Bender logged into Tyler’s email. Brittany got a notification that someone in Pennsylvania had accessed Tyler’s email, but quickly realized it was Bender. She changed the password and told the police about the incident.
In July author Andy Downing would write an article for Columbus Alive called “The Disappearance of Tyler Davis and the Rise of the True Crime Complex”. He would truncate and somewhat rework a version of this article to go out in the Dispatch as well. In the Dispatch article, he took the same approach as Dateline, omitting the strip club entirely in the story, even though he’d mentioned it in his longer article. Whether this was done to make the story more family-friendly, or attempt to try and keep the discussion focused on Tyler’s disappearance rather than speculation about his marriage, some online sleuths did not realize that both articles were written by the same man, and once again went into a frenzy about Brittany changing her story. Ironically enough, a quote Brittany said in this article about the news coverage thus far became oddly appropriate "I've done so many interviews, and talked to so many people, and I told everyone the same story each time, but they can all spin it, I'm telling you my story, but I'm not going to write your article, so you can write it in any direction you feel, which is obviously your right. But if I had six different writers and I tell them all the same story, they're not going to write the same thing, which makes people say, 'Her story doesn't match up.' ... This has never happened to me before, so I'm just trying to navigate the waters as best I can."
In the Dispatch version of the article, Columbus police sergeant Daniel Weaver said of the internet and media’s involvement in the case that, "There are so many competing forces involved in this, and it's almost taken on a life of its own, It's hard to discern between valid information and armchair quarterbacks who read into things that just aren't true." He runs the missing persons/exploited children’s unit and said that the case is absolutely still active, but he doesn't want to release any details and add to the social media mess.
These articles interviewed Katie Frederick herself and when asked about her involvement in the case or how her group might affect the investigation, Katie said “That's a hard one to answer because of course, it concerns me, but at the same time I don't think anything we do on Facebook is going to interfere with what they're doing in real life. For the most part, our group is just a discussion group."
In that same article, Brittany disagreed with Frederick’s stance that social media was not harming her case. After having experienced months of the public criticizing her voice, her weight, and her feelings for her husband she said "We've all seen how damaging social media is, and there's going to be a point, regardless of the outcome, regardless if Tyler pops up tomorrow, there's going to be a point maybe 15 years down the road when our son gets online and finds this. He's going to see people talking so badly about his dad and me, and it's just so awful, and I don't think people are considering the gravity of what they're saying and how it can really affect people. I pray to God our son never has to hear about all of that. I really just want Tyler to come home so we can finally move on."
The original posts have been deleted, but at one point the death of Brittany’s father was a huge topic of discussion among the Crime Junkies Facebook group. He passed away on August 29th 2009. He’d been drinking heavily and passed out in his truck, and when a fire started in the engine compartment he never woke up. His body was found the next day, as he’d been idling in his van in an alleyway. Posters speculated that Brittany’s mother Melissa Fields had killed her husband, and Brittany was simply following the family tradition by killing Tyler. One group discussion speculated that the reason Brittany and her mother were so close was that they were both helping each other cover up murders.
During this controversy, a youtube channel specializing in tarot crime readings covered the case. For those unfamiliar with the practice, Tarot readers will sometimes do readings on unsolved cases to try and figure out what happened. In the video, a camera is pointed at two tarot card decks and a pile of crystals. The reader is behind the camera, and selects cards out of view, though you can hear them shuffling in the background to assure viewers that the cards were indeed chosen at random. In the video the reading backs up all of the popular theories, saying that Brittany and Schon were in love and conspired to kill Tyler and that Melissa was under investigation for killing her husband. Melissa is not and was never under investigation for her husband's death, but this YouTuber claims otherwise.
Katie Marie Frederick would at one point attempt to make some form of amends to Brittany by setting up an Amazon wishlist for her. The request went through Melissa, who absolutely refused to give Frederick her address, and assumed she was using the wishlist as a ploy to harass them. It is worth noting that Frederick seemed genuine in her attempt, and Frederick had started banning people who spread any personal information about Brittany or Melissa. However, we know from the Columbus Alive article that at one point online sleuths posted a picture of the van that Melissa’s husband died in, so her attitude is more than understandable.
Though Frederick does at times seem genuine in helping Brittany later on, she posted the 911 call Brittany made and asked if she sounded suspicious, and would blatantly ask her Facebook group to dig into Brittany and Tyler’s lives and see if they were in debt, as that could have been a strain on their marriage.
On July 15th Brittany wrote “Yesterday I attended the Missing Persons Day in Columbus. I connected with different law enforcement offices and organizations that have assisted in the search for Tyler. I met families that are dealing with the same unfortunate circumstance of a missing loved one. I was shocked to see the number of people that deal with this on a daily basis. Please remember to be kind, you never know what anyone else is going through. Cherish your family. Be grateful for what you have. Our family will never stop looking, searching or asking questions. We will remain hopeful & continue to stay positive. I appreciate your support, shares, and prayers in our family's time of distress. Please keep your eyes open, be vigilant & stay safe.”
On July 18th, 2019 it was Aaron’s birthday and Lori Davis posted an amazon wish list for Brittany and Tyler’s son Aaron, saying he loves Winnie the Pooh and Shrek. Support poured in from the group.
On October 3rd 2019 The Columbus Police Department held a press conference to discuss the case with the public. Lead Detective Jason Brammer answered questions and stressed that the wooded areas around Easton had been searched. Brammer and another officer mentioned that the press conference was part of the sheriff's attempts to be more open to the public, in an effort to get the police, the media, and the public to all work together as best as they can and solve the case.
The True Crime Garage episode is still referenced as one of the most detailed accounts of that night, as only a few news articles covered the disappearance. One reporter in the crowd asked Brammer if he was following what people were saying in podcasts at all and he responded with “I do not follow podcasts, I follow evidence”
Brammer was asked a few questions about if he had any theories, or was leaning one way or another in regards to what happened. He simply stressed that he wasn’t letting himself get wrapped up in any theories or lean in any particular direction so that he could keep an open mind and investigate all angles thoroughly as leads came in.
Near the end of the press conference, Brittany was given the floor, and as she started to tear up, Brammer put his hand on her back, encouraging her to keep talking. She asked the public to come forward with anything they knew saying “It’s been a really long time, and I deserve answers”.
That same day Katie Marie Frederick posted on Facebook, apparently after having a change of heart saying “The first thing I want to say is that we have seen evidence that cannot be released publicly. This evidence has led me to believe that Brittany Davis is 100% innocent. Obviously I can not control how any of you feel. However, I do ask that even if you may believe she is guilty, please think about this: what if she isn’t? If she is not guilty then that means she is mourning the loss of her husband and the father of her child. Before you type, ask yourself: is what I’m about to say beneficial to anyone, or am I just being cruel?Brittany has caught a TON of hatred and I just don’t think that is fair. Now I will be the first to admit that a lot of that hatred came from this group that I created and from me specifically. But that stops now. I apologize for all of that and for any pain I have caused Brittany and those who love her and Tyler. Since I made this group we have made a few more. And we have learned a lot. There are many things that I regret and I am so sorry that things got so ugly. I wish I could take back so much of what was said and done. Unfortunately, I cannot. I just ask that moving forward, we focus on Tyler and remember that there are still people here who love him and miss him dearly. As far as any of us KNOW, Brittany is innocent and that makes her a victim in all of this. Some of you may feel otherwise, but a feeling is not evidence.”
Websleuths and Facebook are still rife with people trying to solve the case. One poster on websleuths pointed out that there were many surface-level similarities between this case and that of Brian Shaffer. In both cases the night in question started at a steakhouse, there were two men and one woman out on the town, and the man who eventually vanished left to go off on his own for “mysterious” reasons. Many of the same theories thrown out in the Brian Shaffer case are also mentioned for Tyler, with some people claiming that he must have fallen in the construction of a new Easton parking garage, and is now part of the structure, or saying he ran away to start a new life, in the middle of the night, while he was drunk.
Anytime the case is mentioned on Reddit, the top comments are almost always about Brittany acting suspiciously. Of course, there are statistics to back up why people tend to assume a spouse in foul play. From 1980-2008 16.3 percent of all homicides were committed by an intimate partner, making it nearly one in five. But does a 16.3% chance justify harassing someone who is now raising a young child on her own, and mourning the disappearance of her husband?
Lori Davis occasionally gets calls from Brittany when she’s frustrated with how the case is going, and she’ll talk her through it. Telling her to do what she can, and not let the negativity get to her. But there’s only so much Brittany can do before she’s left with no option but to wait.
In January of 2020 Brittany took and passed a polygraph in relation to her husband's disappearance. As of March of 2020 Brittany is largely absent on her Facebook group, instead opting to let others post about their missing loved ones. Right now the most recent post is that of Andy Chapman, a man who went missing in 2006. Whenever a body is discovered anywhere near Columbus it gets posted in various forums about Tyler Davis, or Brian Shaffer, further linking the two cases at least in the mind of the internet. Tyler’s disappearance, perhaps in part due to the controversy, has quickly climbed the ranks to being one of the most well known missing person cases in Columbus, meaning many people know what he looks like, and are keeping an eye out for him. This also means that the numbers in all Facebook groups involved continue to climb, and speculation on all social media platforms shows no signs of stopping.


  6. True Crime Garage: episodes 296 and 297
submitted by TopGolfUFO to TrueCrime [link] [comments]

2020.09.18 19:10 slumpadoochous Canadian Mafia War Casualties 2005-2020 (updated 9/18/20)

Summary of murdered and missing people connected to the MTL Mafia war. I separated them into two groups, Rizzuto Allies and Enemies. Bolded names are those whose allegiances I'm unsure of. If anyone can give me a hand rearranging the list, pointing out mistakes or missing names, that'd be awesome. Also couldn't find decent articles for some. Considering adding a third section for people who don't necessarily fit under the first two. EX) Paolo Gervasi was whacked by the Rizzutos over a disagreement, but I'm not sure if one could technically count this as a part of the war as it sort of seems like a "business as usual" killing. It did motivate guys like De Vito and Facchina to assist Desjardins when the war did break out, though.
added a changelog to the bottom.
Rizzuto/Allies Casualties:
Rizzuto Enemies:
Total: 59
Change Log:
Moves & Removals:
submitted by slumpadoochous to Mafia [link] [comments]

2020.09.18 16:47 BuckRowdy [Update] The rise and fall and the depths of depravity of pedophile Jared Fogle from Subway.

This is an updated and edited version of a post I originally submitted at /redditcrimecommunity. It's been updated with the latest info.
I used to be kind of obsessed with the idea of Jared from Subway. He always seemed like nothing more than wallpaper in a commercial, a guy whose job amounted to holding up a comically giant pair of pants for seconds at a time in commercials. How much do you think they paid that guy to do that?
I used to search to see if I could find out Jared's salary or his net worth because to me it seemed like he had the easiest job in the world. Just stand there and smile, hold up the giant pants, shake a few kids hands at store openings and other corporate promotional events; essentially play the character of Jared from the Subway commercials.
The Midwestern everyman who once weighed over 425 pounds and lost it all by eating at Subway every day. Of course the fine print at the bottom of the screen gave the wider context to his weight loss routine, but there was a much wider, much darker context to Jared's story that would only be revealed years later.
Jared started working for Subway in 2000. By 2005 they had stopped featuring him in commercials and their sales declined by 10%. They quickly reinstated him and he was a fixture ever since.
It is true that Jared did lose the weight, and he did do it in part by eating at Subway.
At this point it would be reasonable to ask how did he get the money as a college student to eat all his meals at Subway?
Because he was running a porn video rental business out of his apartment at the time and had an extensive collection. You've got to remember that this was in an era where media of all types was more difficult to obtain. You didn't have everything at your fingertips back then.
Subway opened up on the ground floor and Jared was lazy so he started eating all his meals there.
The rest of Jared's story is marketing mythology. A friend wrote an article in the student newspaper that got published in Men's Health which caught the eye of Subway's marketing department. Jared started working for Subway in 2000 and up until about 2007 it appeared to be a marketing master stroke. That's when the reports started trickling out. In 2007, TMZ published the story about the porn rental business.
We'd learn later that as early as 2008, Subway had received serious reports about Jared from a franchisee in Florida that Jared had befriended at a few store openings. Cindy Mills, the franchisee said:
"He would just tell me he really liked them young," she says. Fogle and Mills had a sexual relationship, which lead Fogle to disclose disturbing details of his criminal activity in lewd text messages.
Mills says she tried to blow the whistle by phoning ad executive Jeff Moody — then CEO of the Subway Franchisee Advertising Fund Trust (SFAFT) — after Fogle had told her that he had sex both in Thailand and the US with child prostitutes between the ages of 9 and 16 years old. According to Mills, Moody stopped her mid-conversation and said, "Don't worry, he has met someone. She is a teacher and he seems to love her very much, and we think she will help keep him grounded." Mills also claims she spoke with two more SFAFT execs after Moody, but ran into more dead ends.
Jared was up to no good for years, but his world really started to crumble in 2015 with the arrest of Russell Taylor. Taylor was Jared's partner in his non-profit charity and he was just as bad as Jared if not worse.
Russell Taylor, the former director of Fogle's anti-childhood obesity foundation, was arrested in April [of 2015] on three counts of possession of child pornography, three counts of child exploitation, and three counts of voyeurism.
Taylor had gotten in trouble for texting a woman a picture of bestiality and suggesting such between the two of them. It's a sick thing to think about, but that's just what Jared and Russell were up to.
In one of those text messages, according to the affidavit, “Russell Taylor asked her if he and another adult female she identified could come to Jane Doe’s residence and engage in” an act of bestiality. The woman did not agree to that request, but told investigators “you could tell (Taylor) was serious.” She also told investigators that “she received an image file via text from Russell Taylor that depicted (another act of bestiality).”
Jared's house was raided and the rest quickly became history. Subway dropped him. Sharknado 3 dropped him. Jared accused Taylor of fraud and sued him. One quarter of the funds of the charity were unaccounted for, and the only money they ever paid out went to Taylor's $73k salary.
I'm no professional but it's hard not to draw the conclusion that Jared was paying Taylor to produce child porn with a non profit charity.
The world found out about Jared in 2015, but in 2007 and 2008 two women were finding out a lot about Jared.
Jared had met a franchisee in Florida and started a sexual relationship with her. She called the FBI when Jared started texting stuff like this:
In one series of texts sent from April 2008, Fogle tries to convince the franchisee, a woman, to advertise herself for sex on Craigslist. She could make $500 per act he explains and he could watch her have sex with other men. Fogle then goes on to apparently admit to paying for sex with a 16-year-old girl off Craigslist.
The woman franchisee writes: "Is this the same website you found that 16 year old you that you f---ed?" the woman replied, according to an affadavit.
  • "I still can't believe you only paid $100 for her."
  • Fogle reponds: "It was amazing!!!!"
  • "What part of her ad made you think she was selling sex?" the woman asked.
  • Fogle says "U will have to read them to see."
The woman got a lawyer and submitted the texts to Subway who sat on them.
Around the same time, Jared met Rochelle Herman Walrond, a journalist who initially remained anonymous, who came forward and said that she got suspicious about Jared when he called middle school girls hot
According to the woman, Jared would often visit schools in Sarasota County, and allegedly told her numerous times that, 'Middle school girls are hot.'"
She contacted the FBI who asked her to wear a wire. She went on to record Jared over a nearly 5 year period, pleading with the FBI to go ahead and arrest him with them always saying that they didn't have enough evidence and needed more.
So she tried to get Jared to incriminate himself. Over that 4.5 year period they talked about a lot of stuff, like that Jared wanted to fly to Thailand to have sex with children.
"I would fly all three of us clear across the world if we need to,"[Jared] says on the tape. "It would just make things a lot easier — if we're going to try and get some young kids with us. It would be a lot easier probably."
He gave her grooming tips:
"Well, if we get them segregated out ... you know, start talking or whatever ... and we get a little closer, and a little closer and a little closer and before you know it ... it just starts to happen," the man's voice says. "But I think that girl from the broken home could be a possibility, you know."
He daydreamed on the phone:
"Do you want to watch me f— a young girl, too?" the voice of Fogle asks. "Will you f— a young boy?" When Herman-Walrond asks if that would turn Fogle on, he responds with a whispered "yeah."
“I had a little boy. It was amazing,” Fogle reportedly said, in response to a question about being with children. “It just felt so good. I mean, it felt—it felt so good.”
He also, allegedly, asked her repeatedly to let him install hidden cameras in her kids’ rooms.
“I had two young children at the time, and he talked to me about installing hidden cameras in their rooms and asked me if I would choose which child I would like him to watch,” she told Inside Edition.
The audio recordings can be heard at this link. She reported him to Subway in 2009 and nothing happened.
At the same time this was happening, Jared was flying to New York to pay for sex with minors. He asked the minors who he paid for sex if they knew anyone else they could recommend, always stressing younger if possible.
Also, according to the charging documents:
Fogle received "images and videos of nude of partially clothed minors engaged in sexually explicit conduct," which were allegedly recorded by Russell Taylor, the former director of the Jared Foundation.
Taylor secretly filmed some of the minors in his home using hidden cameras that captured them changing clothes and bathing.
Taylor was in possession of 400 videos of child pornography upon his arrest.
In 2011, someone else reported Jared to Subway via their website and yet nothing happened.
All this came raining down on Jared in 2015 when his house was raided and he was arrested and later charged with 14 acts of sex involving minors. He was ultimately sentenced to 15 years in jail and had to pay restitution to his 14 of his many victims totaling $1.4 million. His wife divorced him as quick as she could, Subway cut ties with him and the dominoes started to tumble.
All of a sudden the past reports about Jared came to light and Subway didn't have an explanation. Lawsuits started flying. Jared's now ex wife accused Subway of covering up Jared's pedophilia even from her because their marriage made Jared more grounded and more marketable.
It's now a sick joke, but at the same time of jared's arrest, Subway was trying to rebrand him as a family man.
So why didn't Subway act on the various reports it had gotten about Jared over the years? As this site puts it, it was a story bookended by laziness. Jared's laziness brought him to Subway, and their laziness in vetting stories led to the end of the Jared era with a lot of human misery left in his wake.
Subway has waffled in its response. Rather than taking the path of clear messaging and communication, and aiming to transparent and authentic throughout this terrible situation for the victims and Fogle’s family (as well as the brand), the company hasn’t been clear about where it stands in the midst of this crisis. What message was Subway sending to its employees and franchisees by keeping Fogle around for as long as it did?
As soon as he went to jail he instantly gained 30 pounds
In 2016, he filed an appeal which was denied. The DA's office argued:
[that] Fogle's text messages to a woman, in which Fogle stated he would "pay big" if she could procure 14-year-old children, and that he "craved" underage Asian girls. In these text messages, he also expressed sexual interest in young boys, although there is to date no evidence that he paid for sex with male children.
Later that same year, a brawl broke out and Jared was nearly killed in an attack meant to send a message to all pedophiles.
Other than that, rumor has it that Jared has it pretty easy in jail which is disappointing to hear given all that he's responsible for.
In 2017, Fogle tried to pull the Sovereign Citizen defense and claim that the feds didn't have jurisdiction over him which I imagine gave the feds a good laugh. The motion was dismissed.
In 2018, Jared sued to void his conviction going so far as to name the president (among others) as a defendant. It was unclear how the president was involved and Jared was forced to remove him as a defendant.
He claimed:
he was wrongfully allowed to plead guilty to conspiracy to receive child pornography, claiming that conspiracy doesn’t apply to such an offense.
His suit was dismissed.
That same year a woman pen pal of Jared's sold their racy letters to Radar Online. Seen here and here. She also sold a recorded phone call where she and Jared discuss porn and his sexual preferences.
If he wanted to appeal to a parole board, surely sending hand-drawn pictures of his genitalia that later end up on radar online is not a good strategy.
In March 2020, three of associate Russell Taylor's child pornography convictions were overturned for ineffective counsel. He still faces trial on 9 other charges.
In the five years since Fogle was arrested, Subway has been reeling. In 2015, their co-founder passed away and a new CEO was brought in. Internal reports indicate that customer traffic is down 30%. They've laid off over 400 people from the corporate HQ and this summer they had to revoke a promotion due to a franchisee revolt over the pricing.
Subway was associated so long with Jared it may take time for customers to form a new association. They tried to drop him once, struggled, and re-hired him. Clearly Subway lived in denial while Jared was their spokesman and looked the other way as business boomed. The new marketing strategy involves athletes. Time will only tell if they can recover from one of the worst scandals to ever hit a sandwich chain.
As of September 2020, Russell Taylor was being held at a federal prison in Yazoo City, Mississippi; Fogle was being held at a federal prison in Littleton, Colorado.
submitted by BuckRowdy to TrueCrime [link] [comments]

2020.09.18 16:08 eerongal D&D Celebration Megathread

Looking for the magic item hombrew thread? Look here!

Use this thread for discussion about the D&D celebration stream, occurring this weekend!
Saturday Schedule:
8:00 – 11:00

D&D Feature Game

DM: Chris Hislop Featuring: Brandy Camel, Anjuli Smith, Kim Richards, Aoife Wilson, and TK Johnson

11:00 – 12:00

Behind the Screen: DM Roundtable

Moderator: Kelly Lynne D’Angelo with B. Dave Walters, Travis McElroy, Brennan Lee Mulligan, Deborah Ann Woll, and Satine Phoenix

12:00 – 3:00

D&D Feature Game: The Great Knucklehead Rally

DM: Brennan Lee Mulligan Featuring: Jody Houser, Carlos Luna, Guarav Gulati, Liam O’Brien, Aabria Iyengar, and Chris Perkins3:00 – 4:00

What it Means to Be a Bard

Moderator: Critical Bard with Lauren Urban, Krystina Arielle, Kelli Butler, and Eugenio Vargas

4:00 – 7:00

D&D Feature Game

DM: David Harmon Featuring: Michael Hing, Ben Jenkins, Alex Lee, Rowan Bettjemen, Adam King and Alan Morrison

7:30 – 9:30

I Speak Giant

DM: Zac Naoum Players: Elyssa Grant, Luke Lancaster, and Felicia McEntire

D&D Celebration 2020 allows anyone to take part in the event from their own home. Gather your party, go online, and join us for a weekend of play, panels, and celebration!
We've partnered with Extra Life to create special apparel—with all Wizards of the Coast proceeds going directly to Extra Life/Children's Miracle Network Hospitals. Additionally, all ticket sales from the D&D Celebration Event Portal will be donated to the cause. Through Extra Life, we're endeavoring to raise funds, have fun, and help heal kids at local Children's Miracle Network Hospitals!
Since its inception in 2008, Extra Life has raised over $70 million for sick and injured kids. Right now, children's hospitals need your support. Be a hero. Take part today and help raise funds for the Children's Hospitals COVID-19 Impact Fund.
submitted by eerongal to dndnext [link] [comments]

2020.09.18 13:00 DarthEquus The History of Medicalized Circumcision Part 5: 1980-2019

The History of Medicalized Circumcision Part 5: 1980-2019
A new wave of genital cutting was begun with Wiswell in the '80s based on neonatal UTI incidence. He reached his conclusions by comparing children born in a hospital with universal infant circumcision who were born prematurely and whose poor health had prevented routine circumcision at birth. Notably he also commanded parents to treat the child's foreskin destructively only to use the resultant damage as evidence circumcision was necessary. The bigger question about this unfortunately successful infant genital surgery promotion is how was it ever accepted as valid science? To (1998) found the rate of UTI in Canadian infants was reduced 3.5 times but that was really from only 0.7% to 0.2%. So while it sounds like a lot as a relative rate, it would take almost 200 surgeries to prevent a single UTI.
The much more powerful and significant wave of circumcision activism beginning in the 1980s was the terribly successful lie that male genital cutting could significantly help prevent HIV infection. This idea did not reach significant development until after 2000 when John Hopkins circumcision activists designed and performed the large and expensive African RCTs to "prove" male circumcision prevented HIV infection in men based on studies comparing groups with differing levels of STI awareness counseling, the most likely real cause of the recorded effect. That flaw would be fatal, but there were many other problems with those studies besides that. See Boyle & Hill 2011, Van Howe and Storms (2011), and Green (2008) for critiques of those studies.

1980: ~80% of the newborn American male population is circumcised and 67% of adult men
1980 Edward Wallerstein published Circumcision: An American Health Fallacy detailing the sordid history of the medicalized genital cutting movement in the volume that launched the modern intactivist movement.
1982 Former U.S. Surgeon General C. Everett Koop, M.D. wrote in the Saturday Evening Post: "All of the Western world raises its children uncircumcised and it seems logical that, with the extent of health knowledge in those countries, such a practice must be safe."
1983 Hugh C. Thompson recognized there did not appear to be any good reason to continue circumcision. [The Value of Neonatal Circumcision: An Unanswered and Perhaps Unanswerable Question. Am J Dis Child. — [full text]]
"Neonatologists have regarded the operation [circumcision] as without merit. Physicians in all fields agree on the necessity for careful explanation to the parents, preferably before the infant is born. They deplore the occasional grave complications that are largely produced by poor technique and inexperienced operators. One major reason formerly used to justify neonatal circumcision—correction or prevention of phimosis—has been shown to be untenable by serial studies from birth to adulthood. The major indications now proposed as justifying the procedure are prevention of penile [skin] cancer [which is rarer than male breast cancer] and balanitis and a reduction in herpes genitalis and, possibly, cancer of the uterine cervix [disproved and more recently shown to be caused by HPV]. These diseases are decades removed from the neonatal period, and opponents of circumcision regard them as lacking incontrovertible proof or as inconsequential."
1983 Money & Davison found that four of the five men circumcised as adults in their study rated penile sensitivity as diminished. They didn't describe the difference very articulately but they noted differences included "diminished penile sensitivity, less penile gratification, more penile pain, and cosmetic deformity".
"Removal of the entire foreskin, or even part of it, may require a change in masturbatory technique, insofar as there is less or no redundant [sic] skin to be stretched forward or backward [the eversion of the foreskin is more like rolling but with more fluidity]. Thus, there needs to be more reliance on some other surface, for example, the lubricated skin of the fingers or palm, to provide ether rotary or longitudinal friction directly to the shaft of the penis. What has been lost in circumcision is the stretch effect and hypothetically, receptors that provide proprioceptive stretch sensation from the foreskin. Inside the vagina, the penis must move in and out in the fashion of a finger, rather than being sometimes able, like the head of a turtle to pull in and out of the carapuce of its own foreskin, while the pubococcygeal muscles at the vaginal entrance grip the lower part of the shaft. Stretch sensations may be additionally altered if the frenulum is severed in the circumcision."
[Adult penile circumcision: erotosexual and cosmetic sequelae. J Sex Res.]
1985 Thomas E. Wiswell, a military doctor, used flawed methods to show that circumcision decreased incidence of urinary tract infections by comparing infants born prematurely to infants born at term. [Decreased incidence of urinary tract infections in circumcised male infants. Pediatrics.]
1985 Benjamin Spock finally updated the his best-selling parenting book (first published in 1946): "I strongly recommend leaving the foreskin alone. Parents should insist on convincing reasons for circumcision—and there are no convincing reasons that I know of." Later in a 1989 interview in Redbook, he stated "My own preference, if I had the good fortune to have another son, would be to leave his little penis alone."
1986 Aaron J. Fink claimed that circumcision prevented AIDS. [A possible explanation for heterosexual male infection with AIDS. NEJM.]
1988 Aaron J. Fink invented the idea that circumcision prevented neonatal group B streptococcal disease. [Is hygiene enough? Circumcision as a possible strategy to prevent group B streptococcal disease. AJOG.]
1989 Edgar J. Schoen leads the AAP Task Force on Circumcision declared circumcision is medically beneficial. Reported health benefits are hygiene, penile and cervical cancer, phimosis, STDs, and UTIs.
"In addition to the medical aspects, other factors will affect the parents' decisions, including esthetics, religion, cultural attitudes, social pressures, and tradition."
[Report of the Task Force on Circumcision. Pediatrics]
This report has been extensively criticized for it's failure to provide sound evidence of preventative effects of circumcision, it's lack of a cost-benefit analysis, it's failure to address the functions of the foreskin, and overall bias of the report.
[Matthew R. Giannetti. Circumcision and the American Academy of Pediatrics: Should Scientific Misconduct Result in Trade Association Liability? 85 Iowa L. Rev 1507 (2000).]

1990: ~68% of the newborn American male population is circumcised and 70% of adult men

1991 Edgar J. Schoen implored European doctors to institute mass circumcision. [Is it time for Europe to reconsider newborn circumcision? Acta Ped Scan.]
1991 Aaron J. Fink declares mass circumcision is necessary to prevent sand from getting into the soldiers' foreskins. [Circumcision and sand. JRSM.]
1994 Legal victory: Miltex, one of several Mogen clamp manufacturers, stopped distributing the devices in 1994. "Although no obvious defect has been found with the clamp's design or manufacturing we have concerns over the possible mishandling of the instrument by practitioners and our inability to ensure the instrument's proper use," Miltex's then-president Saul Kleinkramer wrote in a letter announcing the decision. The manufacturer was then in default on millions of dollars in lost lawsuits before millions more were lost in additional lawsuits, in total over $23 million. ["Injuries linked to circumcision clamps" Hennessy-Fiske. LA Times. 2011.]
1996 J. R. Taylor et al. found the average amount of foreskin amputated was 51% of the total penile skin on average. They identified the "ridged band contains more Meissner's corpuscles than does the smooth mucosa and exhibits features of specialized sensory mucosa."
"The 'ridged band' may be key to the persistent mislabelling of the inner lining of the prepuce as 'skin'; it is clearly visible on inspection of the retracted prepuce, it is continuous with the wrinkled true skin of the tip of the prepuce, and it looks like skin. Histology aside, the 'wrinkles' of the ridged band are regularly transverse and are difficult to efface by gentle stretching. A vascular blush is usually present.
The vascular ridges of the 'ridged band' and its Meissner's corpuscles firmly separate preputial epithelium from true skin and place preputial mucosa amongst other mucocutaneous mucosae. Winkelmann emphasized the structural and functional importance of junctional regions of the body and focused on mucocutaneous end-organs, or 'genital corpuscles', of the glans penis and prepuce. Some of these end-organs resemble Krause end-bulbs; others resemble Meissner's corpuscles.
Meissner's corpuscles of the prepuce may be compared with similar nerve-endings in the finger-tips and lips, which respond in a fraction of a second to contact with light objects that bring about deformation of their capsules. However, complex sensation, at least in the glans penis, may be mediated by free nerve-endings rather than by specialized end-organs."
[The prepuce: Specialized mucosa of the penis and its loss to circumcision. BJU.]
1996 Political victory against female genital cutting: Non-therapeutic female cutting in all forms were made illegal in the US. [United States Code, 2010 Ed., Title 18, Chapter 7 (Assault), §116 - Female genital mutilation]
1997 Edgar J. Schoen again suggested European countries should institute non-therapeutic circumcision. [Benefits of newborn circumcision: Is Europe ignoring the medical evidence? Arch Dis Child.]
1997 Lander et al. found that circumcision without anesthesia was extremely traumatic for babies. Before this, almost all neonatal cutting were done without anesthetic due to increased risks involved with using it and the prevalent false belief babies were not capable of feeling significant pain or can't remember it. [Comparison of ring block, dorsal penile nerve block, and topical anesthesia for neonatal circumcision. JAMA.]
1997 Taddio et al. wrote on the effect of the pain of infant circumcision being measurable later:
"Preliminary studies suggested that pain experienced by infants in the neonatal period may have long-lasting effects on future infant behaviour. The objectives of this study were to find out whether neonatal circumcision altered pain response at 4-month or 6-month vaccination compared with the response in uncircumcised infants...
"Multivariate ANOVA revealed a significant group effect (p < 0.001) in difference (vaccination minus baseline) values for percentage facial action, percentage cry time, and visual analogue scale pain scores. Univariate ANOVAs were significant for all outcome measures (p < 0.05): infants circumcised with placebo had higher difference scores than uncircumcised infants for percentage facial action (136.9 vs 77.5%), percentage cry duration (53.8 vs 24.7%), and visual analogue scale pain scores (5.1 vs 3.1 cm). There was a significant linear trend on all outcome measures, showing increasing pain scores from uncircumcised infants, to those circumcised with Emla [topical anesthetic], to those circumcised with placebo.
Circumcised infants showed a stronger pain response to subsequent routine vaccination than uncircumcised infants. Among the circumcised group, preoperative treatment with Emla attenuated the pain response to vaccination. We recommend [anesthetic] treatment to prevent neonatal circumcision pain."
[Effect of neonatal circumcision on pain response during subsequent routine vaccination. Lancet .]
1997 The AAP deems infant male circumcision to be an elective procedure rather than routine.
1998 Immerman and Mackey proposed that male genital cutting reorganizes the brain to restrain sexuality and positively influence both social and pair bonding. They noted: "It appears that any sensory deprivation of a system can also lead to cortical changes."
"They assumed desensitizing the penis should reduce sexuality, but that ignores the fact that genital cutting permanently externalizes the orgasmic interior parts of the penis. This sensorial change could as easily be thought to promote sexual thoughts. Supporting the later idea, there are exceptions, but generally homophobia is considerably more common in circumcising cultures or those derived from or strongly influenced by circumcising cultures. This could be because men with circumcised penises have more difficulty perceiving homosexuality as something other than sex."
1999 Cold & Taylor studied the foreskin's specialized innervation and concluded that it is "primary erogenous tissue necessary for normal sexual function." It is specialized, protective, erogenous tissue. A description of the complex nerve structure of the penis explains why anesthetics provide incomplete pain relief during circumcision. [The prepuce. BJU. pdf]
1999 The AAP Task Force on Circumcision reviewed 40 years worth of medical studies and concluded the "potential medical benefits of newborn male circumcision… are not sufficient to recommend routine neonatal circumcision." This report was the first time the AAP acknowledged that circumcision without anesthesia is traumatic and that if circumcision is to be done, anesthesia should be used. Some highlights from the report:
Role of Hygiene: "there is little evidence to affirm the association between circumcision status and optimum penile hygiene."
STDs including HIV: "behavioral factors appear to be far more important than circumcision status."
Penile Cancer: "in a developed country such as the United States, penile cancer is a rare disease and the risk of penile cancer developing in an uncircumcised man, although increased compared with a circumcised man, is low."
Urinary Tract Infections: "breastfeeding was shown to have a threefold protective effect on the incidence of UTI in a sample of uncircumcised infants. However, breastfeeding status has not been evaluated systematically in studies assessing UTI and circumcision status." meaning that the earlier UTIs studies results were confounded. Even if their numbers were accurate, in order to prevent one UTI during the first year of life by circumcising a baby boy, approximately 195 babies who will not get a UTI would need to be circumcised. Curiously, while female infants develop UTIs at higher rates than boys, the standard treatment is antibiotics not surgery. The AAP concludes this section noting that "the absolute risk of developing a UTI in an uncircumcised male infant is low (at most, ~1%)".
[AAP Task Force on Circumcision. Circumcision Policy Statement, Pediatrics 1999;103(3):686-93.]

2000: ~62% of the newborn American male population is circumcised and 75% of adult men

2003 Edgar J. Schoen pressured the AAP to reverse its policy on circumcision, claiming it prevents AIDS. [It's wise to circumcise: time to change policy. Pediatrics.]
2005-2007 Johns Hopkins three studies were all ended early with the conclusion that circumcision is "like a vaccine" that prevents HIV infection. These three African studies were widely reported falsely to be gold-standard evidence of major HIV benefit from circumcision. The results of the African RCTs could easily be explained by the varying levels of STI awareness counseling between the two groups because the counseling was provided along with the surgery. Selection bias in groups of men who wanted the surgery when half were denied what they wanted, while half were given the surgery they wanted and instructed about sexual disease and safe sex. In all the studies, five times more participants were lost than seroconverted. [Auvert, 2005; Bailey & Moses, 2005; Gray, 2007]
2000 The U.S. FDA "issued a public health notice about the Mogen and Gomco clamps after receiving about 20 injury reports a year since 1996, including lacerations, hemorrhaging, penile amputation and urethral damage. Instead of recalling the devices, the FDA advised users to make sure they were using the correct size Mogen clamp and that the space between the clamp's jaws met manufacturer's specifications. The agency also cautioned against using replacement parts on the Gomco clamp, which led it to malfunction.
But complications continued. In the 11 years between the FDA warnings and the Hall settlement, the agency has received 139 additional reports of problems related to circumcision clamps, including 51 injuries, said spokeswoman Amanda Sena. Twenty-one of those reports were related to Mogen clamps, all but one of which involved injuries. ["Injuries linked to circumcision clamps" Hennessy-Fiske. LA Times. 2011.]
2000 Circumcision is described as an intervention with long-term neurobehavioral effects:
"The brain of the newborn infant is particularly vulnerable to early adverse experiences, leading to abnormal development and behavior. Although several investigations have correlated newborn complications with abnormal adult behavior, our understanding of the underlying mechanisms remains rudimentary. Models of early experience, such as repetitive pain, sepsis, or maternal separation in rodents and other species have noted multiple alterations in the adult brain, correlated with specific behavioral types depending on the timing and nature of the adverse experience. The mechanisms mediating such changes in the newborn brain have remained largely unexplored. Maternal separation, sensory isolation (understimulation), and exposure to extreme or repetitive pain (overstimulation) may cause altered brain development. These changes promote two distinct behavioral types characterized by increased anxiety, altered pain sensitivity, stress disorders, hyperactivity/attention deficit disorder, leading to impaired social skills and patterns of self-destructive behavior. The clinical importance of these mechanisms lies in the prevention of early adverse experiences and effective treatment of newborn pain and stress."
[Anand, K. and Scalzo, F. Can Adverse Neonatal Experiences Alter Brain Development and Subsequent Behavior? Biol Neonate]
2001 Kenneth McGrath detailed the anatomy of the frenular delta. [The frenular delta: a new preputial structure In: Denniston GC, Hodges FM, Milos MF, editors. Understanding Circumcision: A Multi-Disciplinary Approach to a Multi-Dimensional Problem]
2002 D. Taves tested the hypothesis the foreskin reduces friction finding it did so more than 10 times (when friction is great enough to engage this feature). [The intromission function of the foreskin. Med Hypotheses.]
2003 Bensley & Boyle found circumcision contributes to vaginal dryness. Women reported they were significantly more likely to have experienced vaginal dryness during intercourse with circumcised than with genitally intact men. [Effects of Male Circumcision on Female Arousal and Orgasm. N Z Med J.]
2007 M. Sorrells tested the fine touch sensitivity of the penis and found the foreskin is the most sensitive part of the penis, while the glans is the least. [Fine touch pressure thresholds in the adult penis. BJU Int.NSFW diagram comparing circumcised and intact sensitivity (penis graphic)]
"The most sensitive location on the circumcised penis was the circumcision scar on the ventral surface. Five locations on the uncircumcised penis that are routinely removed at circumcision had lower pressure thresholds [i.e., were more sensitive] than the ventral scar of the circumcised penis."
YouTube: Morris Sorrels discusses his test and it's results
2007 The American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology (ACOG) recommended against performing female circumcision or other non-therapeutic female genital cutting surgeries, because the promotion of the surgery as sexually enhancing was not based on empirical evidence and the surgeries were not medically indicated. This was the first assertion of what had become common wisdom over only the past 30 years. Female cutting for benefits was being promoted in popular US media into the 1970s.

2010: ~58% of the newborn American male population is circumcised and 73% of adult men
2010 The American Academy of Pediatrics published a statement on Female Genital Cutting policy proposing a "ritual nick" to be performed by medical professionals. Outrage ensued. The statement was retracted one month later.
[Ritual Genital Cutting of Female Minors. AAP Committee in Bioethics]
2010 Royal Dutch Medical Association (KNMG) stated the foreskin is "a complex, erotogenic structure that plays an important role in the mechanical function of the penis during sexual acts, such as penetrative intercourse and masturbation". The organization also stated "circumcision of male minors is a violation of children’s rights to autonomy and physical integrity."
2011 Morten Frisch et al. examined associations of male circumcision with a range of measures of sexual dysfunction in both sexes.
The relevant graph from
"Age at first intercourse, perceived importance of a good sex life and current sexual activity differed little between circumcised and uncircumcised men or between women with circumcised and uncircumcised spouses. However, circumcised men reported more partners and were more likely to report frequent orgasm difficulties after adjustment for potential confounding factors [11 vs 4%, OR(adj) = 3.26; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.42-7.47], and women with circumcised spouses more often reported incomplete sexual needs fulfilment (38 vs 28%, OR(adj) = 2.09; 95% CI 1.05-4.16) and frequent sexual function difficulties overall (31 vs 22%, OR(adj) = 3.26; 95% CI 1.15-9.27), notably orgasm difficulties (19 vs 14%, OR(adj) = 2.66; 95% CI 1.07-6.66) and dyspareunia [painful intercourse] (12 vs 3%, OR(adj) = 8.45; 95% CI 3.01-23.74). Findings were stable in several robustness analyses, including one restricted to non-Jews and non-Moslems.
Our study shows hitherto unrecognized associations between male circumcision and sexual difficulties in both men and women. While confirmatory findings in other settings are warranted, notably from areas where neonatal circumcision is more common, our findings may inform doctors and parents of baby boys for whom the decision of whether or not to circumcise is not dictated by religious or cultural traditions. Additionally, since it appears from our study that both men and women may have fewer sexual problems when the man is uncircumcised, and because preputial plasties may sometimes serve as suitable alternatives to standard circumcision, our study may stimulate a more conservative, tissue-preserving attitude in situations where foreskin pathology requires surgical intervention."
[Male circumcision and sexual function in men and women: a survey-based, cross-sectional study in Denmark. Int J Epidemiol.]
YouTube: Medical researcher Morten Frisch speaks about research finding an increased rate of sexual difficulties correlating with circumcision
2012 S. Podnar found the ability to elicit the penilo-cavernosus reflex was suppressed by foreskin destruction. This reflex was non-elicitable in 8% of healthy intact men and 73% of the men with circumcised foreskin. [Clinical elicitation of the penilo-cavernosus reflex in circumcised men. BJU Int.]
2012 In a short-lived political victory followed by a loss, a Cologne District Court ruled that a boy's non-therapeutic circumcision constituted "bodily harm". In response to this legal precedent and resultant pressure from religious groups on politicians, the German legislature legalized non-therapeutic infant foreskin destruction less than a year later against the opinion of German Pediatricians and the majority of the nation.
2013 G. A. Bronselaer et al. surveyed over 1,000 intact and over 300 circumcised men in Belgium. They found:
"For the glans penis, circumcised men reported decreased sexual pleasure and lower orgasm intensity. They also stated more effort was required to achieve orgasm, and a higher percentage of them experienced unusual sensations (burning, prickling, itching, or tingling and numbness of the glans penis). For the penile shaft a higher percentage of circumcised men described discomfort and pain, numbness and unusual sensations. In comparison to men circumcised before puberty, men circumcised during adolescence or later indicated less sexual pleasure at the glans penis, and a higher percentage of them reported discomfort or pain and unusual sensations at the penile shaft.
This study confirms the importance of the foreskin for penile sensitivity, overall sexual satisfaction, and penile functioning. Furthermore, this study shows that a higher percentage of circumcised men experience discomfort or pain and unusual sensations as compared with the uncircumcised population. Before circumcision without medical indication, adult men, and parents considering circumcision of their sons, should be informed of the importance of the foreskin in male sexuality."
[Male circumcision decreases penile sensitivity as measured in a large cohort. BJU Int.]
2016 Jennofer Bossio publishes a study claiming no difference in penile sensitivity between circumcised and intact men. Though the intact men reported higher sensitivity for touch and vibration, she made her final conclusion based on the two groups response to pain, which showed jo statistical difference. [Examining Penile Sensitivity in Neonatally Circumcised and Intact Men Using Quantitative Sensory Testing. J Urol. 2016 Jun.]
The media, of course, ran with the conclusion, despite the methodological flaws in the study. Brian Earp discusses the study and it's limited impact on our understanding of long term effects of infant male circumcision.
[Infant Circumcision and Adult Penile Sensitivity.]
2017 The 2012 AAP statement on circumcision expired and since then, they have not released any policy statements on the procedure.
2018 In Iceland, the Progressive Party made a motion to ban all non therapeutic genital cutting of boys. The bill received massive pushback from religious communities. It has not been passed, but neither has it been scrapped.
[183/148 frumvarp: almenn hegningarlög]

Looking forward

This timeline is meant to help show the series of events that led us from a circumcision rate of almost zero, to a country of normalized, routine circumcision, and finally to a country desperately trying to justify the practice. Despite the most stubborn traditionalists, the practice is dying out. We can acknowledge the history of medical circumcision and recognize it is nothing but sexual violence and snake oil claims and bring this practice to a swift end, and ensure that out future children will live their lives with their whole bodies. Or we can cling to comforting lies, and allow the insecure and ignorant damage their children for life to protect their own egos. Future generations will look back at us now and have the same reactions of disgust and disbelief many readers here had when looking at the justifications given 100 or more years ago.
Our future children deserve better.

Previous: 1940-1979

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2020.09.18 11:15 FuzzyOneAdmin Lineage Logistics 完成16亿美元新股募资,以推动业务增长并支持对技术和自动化的进一步投资

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2020.09.18 11:02 FuzzyOneAdmin Lineage Logistics 完成16億美元新股募資,以推動業務成長並支持對科技和自動化的進一步投資

This post was originally published on this siteThis post was originally published on this site密西根州諾維–(BUSINESS WIRE)–(美國商業資訊)–全球最大、最具創新性的溫控工業房地產投資信託(REIT)與物流解決方案提供商Lineage Logistics, LLC(“Lineage”或「公司」)今天宣佈,其已向新的以及現有的策略性合作夥伴募股16億美元。參與此次募股的投資者包括Oxford Properties Group (“Oxford Properties”)、BentallGreenOak、D1 Capital Partners、Cohen & Steers、OPTrust、CenterSquare Investment Management和由Morgan Stanley Tactical Value管理的投資基金等。 Lineage總裁兼執行長Greg Lehmkuhl表示:「該項來自現有及新投資者的重大投資是對我們的商業模式、創新策略以及繼續擴大我們為全球最大溫控倉儲與物流公司版圖計畫的驗證。在我們重新構想食品供應鏈並執行公司宗旨以消除浪費並幫助為全世界提供食物時,我們仍專注於在全球經營和部署業界顛覆技術以提高我們320處設施的效率,從而為我們的5,000多家客戶提升價值。」 2020年,Lineage已宣佈16項收購,並已執行15項新擴建和綠地工廠專案。公司還將繼續開發一些全球最先進、可降低環境強度的全自動倉庫,同時在全球疫情對全球食品供應鏈帶來巨大壓力的時期,為客戶提供靈活且可擴充的容量。新資金將用於推動這些日益龐大的投資計畫。 Lineage的共同執行主席兼創立和管理Lineage Logistics的公司Bay Grove的共同創辦人兼管理合夥人Adam Forste表示:「自公司於2008年成立以來,我們一直致力於建立全球平臺、利用先進科技為該平臺提供動力,以及建立世界一流的領導團隊來領導食品業,從而改變食品鏈。從收購第一家倉庫開始,我們已能夠擁有優秀的投資者來發展Lineage。此次融資為我們增加了非凡的新策略性合作夥伴和董事會成員,將進一步促進我們的成長和創新能力。」 Oxford Properties總裁Michael Turner將隨著此次融資加入Lineage董事會,他擁有數十年的商業房地產經驗。Oxford是全球首屈一指的商業房地產投資商、開發商和管理者,旗下管理資產約600億美元。Oxford在全球四大洲發展業務,其投資組合中的房地產面積超過1億平方英尺,遍及全球門戶城市和高成長樞紐,投資於各種風險回報的物業、資產組合、開發場地、債務、證券和平臺等。 Oxford Properties總裁Michael Turner表示:「近年來,Oxford選擇性地在全球投資一系列一流的營運商,顯著增加了我們對物流房地產的參與,而Lineage則是冷藏業的主要營運商。我期待與Lineage的管理團隊以及董事會其他成員合作,正是他們將該公司發展為全球市場領導者。我們的投資展示了我們對該團隊、其所建立的平臺以及Lineage成長機會的信心。」 公司還宣佈了新的董事會觀察員,其中每位都有豐富的房地產投資經驗。這些觀察員包括房地產投資管理與顧問公司BentallGreenOak的創辦人兼資深管理合夥人John Carrafiell,以及中國最大、最知名的商業地產開發商搜狐中國的首席執行官張欣。 摩根士丹利(Morgan Stanley)和Eastdil Secured擔任此次交易的配售代理,Latham & Watkins, LLP擔任Lineage的法律顧問。 關於Lineage Logistics Lineage是全世界最大和最具創新性的溫控物流解決方案提供商。Lineage綜合了端到端物流解決方案領域的專長、無可匹敵的不動產網路及科技運用,促進食品安全性,提升配送效率,推進永續發展,減少環境影響並減少供應鏈浪費。因此,Lineage幫助從財星500大企業到小型家族企業的各種規模客戶提高效率並保護其溫控供應鏈的完整性。自2008年以來,Lineage的冷藏容量每年成長60%,達到19億立方英尺,使其成為全球最大的溫控工業房地產投資信託基金(REIT)。公司憑藉業界領先的創新力,在Fast Company雜誌 2019年全球最具創新力企業年度排行榜上榮膺資料科學企業榜首,同時在該雜誌對全球數千家公司的評估中綜合排名第23名。( 關於Bay Grove Bay Grove是一家主要投資公司,致力於與強大管理團隊合作投資並建立長期平臺投資。自2008年以來,透過與企業家、客戶和員工合作完成的收購與投資,Bay Grove建立了Lineage […]
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2020.09.17 19:27 stake_pool Update and Few Thoughts, a (Well-Typed) transcript: Liza&Charles the marketeers, Voltaire kick-off, PrisM and Ebb-and-Flow to fuck ETH2.0 Gasper, the (back)log of a man and a falcon, lots of companies, September Goguen time, Basho, 2021 Titans, Basho, Hydra and much more thoughts and prayers

Hi everybody this is Charles Hoskinson broadcasting live from warm sunny Colorado. I'm trying a new streaming service and it allows me to annotate a few things and simulcast to both periscope and youtube. Let's see how this works. I also get to put a little caption. I think for the future, I'm just for a while going to put: "I will never give away ada". So, when people repost my videos for giveaway scams they at least have that. First off, a thank you, a community member named Daryl had decided to carve a log and give his artistic impression of my twitter profile picture of me and the falcon so that always means a lot when I get these gifts from fans and also I just wanted to, on the back of the Catalyst presentation, express my profound gratitude and excitement to the community.
You know it's really really cool to see how much progress has been made in such a short period of time. It was only yesterday when we were saying "when Shelley"? Now Shelley's out and it's evolving rapidly. Voltaire is now starting to evolve rapidly and we're real close to Goguen. At the end of this month we'll be able to talk around some of the realities of Goguen and some of the ideas we have and give some dates for certain things and give you a sense of where that project is at. The good news is that we have gained an enormous amount of progress and knowledge about what we need to do and how to get that done and basically people are just executing and it's a much smaller task than getting us to Shelley. With Byron to Shelley we literally had to build a completely new cryptocurrency from the ground up. We had to have new ledger rules, new update system, we had to invent a way of transitioning from one system to another system and there's hundreds of other little innovations along the way: new network stack and so forth. Byron cosmetically looks like Shelley but under the hood it's completely different and the Shelley design was built with a lot of the things that we needed for Goguen in mind. For example, we built Shelley with the idea of extended UTXO and we built Shelley understanding what the realities were for the smart contract model and that's one of the advantages you get when you do this type of bespoke engineering. There's two consequences to that, one, the integration is significantly easier, and two, the integration is significantly faster. We won't look at that same complexity there.
The product update at the end of the month... We'll really start discussing around some of these things as well as talk about partners and talk about how the development ecosystem is going to evolve. There are a lot of threads throughout all three organizations that are happening simultaneously. Emurgo, they're really thinking deeply about DeFi and they've invited us to collaborate with them on things like stablecoins for example but we're also looking at oracles (oracle pools), DEX and these other things and because there are already people in market who have made mistakes, learned lessons, it gives us the benefit of hindsight. It means we can be much faster to market and we can build much more competitive things in market and the Cardano community gets first access to these next generation DeFi applications without a lot of the problems of the prior generations and that's super beneficial to us.
You know, the other side of it, is that Voltaire is going to have a systemic influence not just on community funding but also the overall evolution and direction of the platform. The longer it exists the more pervasive it will become. Probably first applied towards the Cardano foundation roadmap but later on it will definitely have a lot of influence and say over every element aspect of the system including the launch dApps and these other things. Basically, long term, the types of problems that Cardano solves so that's incredibly appealing to me and very exciting to me because it's like I have this giant community brain with the best and brightest of all of you working with us to get us where we need to go.
You know, another thing that was super encouraging, it's a small thing, but it shows us that we're definitely in the right direction was that we recently got a demo from Pramod (Viswanath) and his team out of university of Illinois on a protocol they create called PrisM which is a super fast proof-of-work protocol and they wrote this beautiful paper and they wrote code along with it that showed that PrisM is a ten thousand times faster than Nakamoto consensus. If you take the bitcoin proof-of-work protocol, you strip it out, you put PrisM in, you can run the entire bitcoin system 10000 times faster. They have these beautiful benchmarks to show that. Even in bad network conditions. (I'm) promoting this team, they're, they're real researchers, and they're real engineers, they use a lot of cool HPC concepts like springboarding and other things like that to accommodate that. Then I asked him in the presentation, I said well, how much faster if you replay the Ethereum chain? He says, well, that it takes a big performance hit, could be only maybe a hundred times because that model is not as easy to optimize and shard with standard computer science concepts. In fact in some cases there are limitations there that really can't be overcome. It turns out that we're more on that UTXO side than we are on the account side. As a coincidence or intent of the design of extended UTXO we're gonna have a lot easier time getting much higher performance where and when it's necessary.
I also approved this week a scaling up of the Basho project. In particular, to build a hydra prototype team. The science has gotten to a point where we can make a really competitive push in that particular direction. What does that mean? It means that in just a few short months we can de-risk technological approaches that long-term will give us a lot of fruit where and when the community decides that they need infrastructure like hydra. Now, here's the beautiful thing about hydra. If you watch my whiteboard back in September of 2017 when Cardano first hit market with Byron I talked about this concept of looking at scalability with a very simple test which is as you get more people in the system it stays at the same performance or it gets faster. We all experience systems that do this, for example, bittorrent, more people downloading something you tend to be able to get it faster and we all experience the converse which is, the system gets slower when you get more people. What does this mean? It means that hydra is an actual approach towards true scalability in the system and it's a lot easier to do than sharding even though we have a beautiful approach to get the sharding on the ledger side if we truly desire to go down that way. There's beautiful ideas that we are definitely in deep discussions about. That's a very complex thing. There was recently a paper ("Ebb-and-Flow Protocols: A Resolution of the Availability-Finality Dilemma") out of Stanford that showed that the Gasper protocol as proposed for ETH2.0 does have some security concerns and it's going to be the burden on the shoulders of the Ethereum 2.0 developers and Vitalik to address those concerns from those Stanford professors. Whenever you have these very complex protocols they have so many different ways they can break and things can go wrong so it's much more appealing when you don't have to embrace complexity to achieve the same. The elegance of hydra is that stake pool operators are very natural parties to put hydra channels on and every time we add one we get much more performance out of that and the system as it gets more valuable. The k factor increases which means you get more stake pull operators, which means you get more hydra channels, so with growth we get appreciation, with appreciation we get more decentralization, with more decentralization we get more performance. In essence, this spiritually speaking, is really what we meant when we said scalability. That the system will always grow to meet its particular needs and we have a very elegant way of moving in that direction that doesn't require us to embrace very sophisticated techniques. It's not to say that these techniques don't have a place and purpose but it says that the urgency of implementing these is gone and we then have the luxury to pick the best science when it's ready instead of rushing it to market to resolve a crisis of high fees. We'll never have that crisis so there's a beauty to Cardano that is missing, I in my view, from many cryptocurrencies and blockchains in the marketplace and we're now seeing that beauty shine through. Not only through our community who are so passionate and amazing but in the science and the engineering itself and how easy it is for us to navigate the concepts. How easy it is for us to add more things, to take some things away, to clean some things up here and there and our ability to move through.
I never imagined when in 2015 I signed up to go in on this crazy ride and try to build a world financial operating system we would have made as much progress as we made today. We've written more than 75 research papers as an organization many of which are directly applicable to Cardano. We've got great partners who work with Nasa and Boeing and Pfizer, massive companies, that have 10 years of history and millions of users to come in and help us grow better. We've worked with incredible organizations, major universities like university of Wyoming, university of Edinburgh, Tokyo, tech professors all across the world. We've worked with incredible engineering firms like VacuumLabs and AtixLabs and Twig and Well-Typed, runtime verification, QuviQ and dozens of others along the years and despite the fact that at times there's been delays and friction throughout this entire journey we've mostly been aligned and we keep learning and growing. It gives me so much hope that our best days are ahead of us and an almost fanatical belief that success is inevitable in a certain respect. You see because we always find a way to be here tomorrow and we always find a way to make tomorrow a better day than today and as long as that's the trend you're monotonically increasing towards a better tomorrow, you're always going to have that outcome, you're always going to be in a position where Cardano shines bright. Towards the end of the month we'll have a lot more to say about the development side and that'll be a beginning just like Voltaire is the beginning and then suddenly you now notice the beautiful parallelism of the roadmap. Shelley continues to evolve, partial delegation is coming, in fact, I signed the contract with vacuumlabs to bring that to Ledger (and Trezor). The Daedalus team is hard at work to make that feature apparent for everyone as is the Yoroi team.
You see that, with now Voltaire, and soon was Goguen, and these are not endpoints, rather they're just beginnings and they're never over. We can always make staking better, more diverse, more merit-based and entertain different control models, have better delegation mechanics, have better user experience. The same for smart contracts, that's an endless river and along the way what we've discovered is it's easy for us to work with great minds and great people. For example with testing of smart contracts I would love to diversify that conversation above and beyond what we can come up with and bring in some firms who have done this for a long time to basically take that part with us shoulder to shoulder and build beautiful frameworks to assist us. For example, runtime verification is doing this with, the EVM with a beautiful project called Firefly to replace Truffle. I believe that we can achieve similar ends with Plutus smart contracts.
When you ask yourself what makes a system competitive in the cryptocurrency space? In my view there are four dimensions and you have to have a good story for all four of those dimensions. You need security and correctness. A lot of people don't prioritize that but when they get that wrong it hurts retail people, it hurts everyday people, billions of dollars have been lost due to the incompetence and ineptitude of junior developers making very bad mistakes and oftentimes those developers faced no consequences. The people who lost money were innocent people who believed in cryptocurrencies and wanted to be part of the movement but didn't protect themselves adequately. That's a really sad thing and it's unethical to continue pushing a model that that is the standard or the likely outcome rather than a rare edge case. You have to as a platform, a third generation platformn invest heavily in giving the developers proper tools to ensure security and correctness. We've seen a whole industry there's been great innovations out of Quantstamp and ConsenSys and dozens of other firms in the space including runtime verification who have really made major leaps in the last few years of trying to improve that story. What's unique to Cardano is that we based our foundations on languages that were designed right the first time and there's over 35 years of history for the approach that we're following in the Haskell side that allows us to build high assurance systems and our developers in the ecosystem to build high assurance systems. We didn't reinvent the wheel, we found the best wheel and we're giving it to you.
I think we're going to be dominant in that respect as we enter 2021. Second, you look at things like ease of maintenance, ease of deployment, the life cycle of the software upgrades to the software and as we've demonstrated with things like the hard fork combinator and the fact that Voltaire is not just a governance layer for ada and Cardano but will eventually be reusable for any dApp deployed on our system. You have very natural tooling that's going to allow people to upgrade their smart contracts, their dApps and enable governance for their users at an incredibly low cost and not have to reinvent the governance wheel each and every application. This is another unique property to our system and it can be reused for the dApps that you deploy on your system as I've mentioned before. Performance is a significant concern and this was often corrupted by marketers especially ICO marketers who really wanted to differentiate (and) say: "our protocol tested on a single server in someone's basement is 500000 transactions per second" and somehow that translates to real life performance and that's antithetical to anyone who's ever to study distributed systems and understands the reality of these systems and where they go and what they do and in terms of performance. I think we have the most logical approach. You know, we have 10 years of history with bitcoin, it's a massive system, we've learned a huge amount and there's a lot of papers written about, a lot of practical projects and bitcoin is about to step into the world of smart contracts. We congratulate them on getting Schnorr sigs in and the success of Taproot. That means entering 2021, 2022, we are going to start seeing legitimate dApps DeFi projects, real applications, instead of choosing Ethereum or Algorand, EOS, Cardano, choosing bitcoin and they're adding a lot to that conversation. I think that ultimately that model has a lot of promise which is why we built a better one. There are still significant limitations with what bitcoin can accomplish from settlement time to the verbosity of contracts that can be written.
The extended UTXO model was designed to be the fastest accounting and most charitable accounting model ever, on and off chain, and hydra was designed to allow you to flex between those two systems seamlessly. When you look at the foundations of where we're at and how we can extend this from domain specific languages, for domain experts, such as Marlowe to financial experts, and the DSLs that will come later, for others, like lawyers and supply chain experts in medical databases and so forth and how easy it is to write and deploy these. Plutus being beautiful glue code for both on and off chain communications. I think we have an incredibly competitive offering for performance and when hydra comes, simply put, there'll be no one faster. If we need to shard, we're going to do that and definitely better than anybody else because we know where our security model sits and there won't be surprise Stanford papers to blindside us that require immediate addressing.
In terms of operating costs, this is the last component, in my view, and that's basically how much does it cost you the developer to run your application? There are really two dimensions, one is predictability and the other is amount. It's not just good enough to say: it's a penny per transaction today. You need to know that after you spend millions of dollars and months or years of effort building something and deploying something that you're not going to wake up tomorrow and now it's five dollars to do what used to cost a penny. You need that cost to be as low as possible and as predictable as possible and again the way that we architectured our system and as we turn things on towards the end of this year and as we enter into the next year we believe we have a great approach to achieve low operating cost. One person asks why Cardano? Well because we have great security and correctness in the development experience and tools with 35 years of legacy that were built right the first time and don't put the burdens of mistakes on your customers. They ask why Cardano and we say: well the chain itself is going to give you great solutions with identity value transformation and governance itself and as a consequence when you talk about upgrading your applications having a relationship with your customers of your applications and you talk about the ease of maintenance of those applications. There's going to be a good story there and we have beautiful frameworks like Voltaire that allow that story to evolve and we keep adding partners and who have decades of experience to get us along. We won't stop until it's much better. They asked why Cardano? We said because at the moment we're 10 times faster today than Ethereum today and that's all we really need for this year and next year to be honest and in the future we can be as fast as we need to be because we're truly scalable. As the system gets more decentralized the system improves performance and where and when we need to shard we can do that. We'll have the luxury of time to do it right, the Cardano way, and when people ask why Cardano? Because the reality is, it's very cheap to do things on our platform and the way we're building things. That's going to continue being the case and we have the governance mechanisms to allow the community to readjust fees and parameters so that it can continue being affordable for users. Everything in the system will eventually be customizable and parameterizable: from block size, to transaction fees and the community will be in a good position to dynamically allocate these things where and when needed so that we can enjoy as an ecosystem predictability in our cost.
In the coming weeks and months, especially in my company, we're going to invest a lot of time and effort into comparison marketing and product marketing. When I see people say, oh well, you've launched proof of stake, a lot of other people have done. I don't think those people fully appreciate the magnitude of what we actually accomplished as an ecosystem and the quality of the protocols that are in distribution. That's not their fault, it's our fault, because we didn't take the time in simplistic terms, not scientific papers and deep code and formal specifications, but rather everyday language, to really show why we're different. I admit that that's a product failing and that needs to be corrected so we hired a great marketing director, named Liza (Horowitz?) and she is going to work full time with me and others in the ecosystem, a great team of people, every single day to get out there and explain what we have done is novel, unique, competitive and special to our industry. Everything from Ouroboros and contrast to major other protocols from the EOSes and Algorands and the Tezos of the world. Why we're different, trade-offs we chose over them, to our network stack, to the extended UTXO model, to Plutus, to Marlowe and we're going to keep hammering away at that until we get it right and everybody acknowledges and sees what has been accomplished.
I've spent five years of my life, good years of my life, and missed a lot to get this project where it needs to go. All of our employees have invested huge sums of their personal lives, their time, their brand, their careers, in trying to make this the really most magical and special cryptocurrency and blockchain infrastructure around. No one ever signed up in this company or the other companies working on Cardano to work on a mediocre protocol. That's just another blockchain, they signed up to change the world, they signed up to build a system that legitimately can look at you in the face and say: one day we have the potential to have a billion users! That's what they signed up for and they showed up to play. They built technology that evolves in that direction with some certainty and great foundations and we have an obligation to market in a way that can show the world why, succinctly, with clarity. Understandably, this has been a failing in the past but you know what? You can always be better tomorrow that monotonically increasing make it better and that's what we're going to do. We recognized it and we're going to invest in it and with Voltaire if we can't do it. You the community can do it and we'll work with you. If you can do a better job and the funding will be there to get that done. In addition to this, we think about 2021 and we ask where does the future take us? I've thought a lot about this you know I've thought a lot about how do we get the next five years as we close out 2020 and here's the reality: we're not going to leave as a company until we have smart contracts and multi-asset and Voltaire has evolved to a point where the community can comfortably make decisions about the future of the protocol and that the staking experience has solidified and it's stable.
I don't care if this costs me millions or tens of millions of dollars out of my own pocket to make happen. I'm going to do that because that's my commitment to you, the community and every product update will keep pushing our way there. We'll continue to get more transparent, we'll continue to get more aggressive and hire more and parallelize more. Aware when we can, to deliver that experience so that Cardano gets where it needs to go. Then when we ask about where do we go next? The reality is that the science as an industry, the engineering as an industry has given a menu of incredibly unique attractive and sexy things that we can pursue. What we're going to do is work with the community and the very same tools that are turning on today, the Voltaire tools, the tools and we're going to propose a consortium and we're going to bring the best and brightest together and give a vision of where we can take the system in another five years. With the benefit of hindsight, massively improved processes, better estimation capabilities and the fact that we're not starting with two people at IOG. We're starting with 250 people and the best scientific division in our industry and the legacy of almost, nearly by the end of this year, 100 scientific papers. That's us, you know what, there's dozens of companies throughout the history who have worked on Cardano. It's about time to scale them up too and get client diversity. So come next year when the protocol has evolved to the point where it's ready for it, we'll have that conversation with you the community and that's going to be a beautiful conversation. At the conclusion of it, there's going to be certainty of how we're going to evolve over the next five years to get ourselves beyond the cryptocurrency space. I'm very tired of these conversations we have about: are you going to go to (coindesk's) consensus or not? Or who's going to be the big winner? What about Libra or what about this particular regulation and this crypto unicorn and this thing?
You know I've been in the space a long time and I've noticed that people keep saying the same things year after year in the same venues. Yes, the crowd sizes get larger and the amount of value at risk gets larger but I haven't seen a lot of progress in the places where I feel it is absolutely necessary for this technology to be permanent in the developing world. We need to see economic identity. People often ask what is the mission for Cardano? For us IOG, you look at economic identity and you take a look at a roadmap. For it, you scale up and down, and each and every step along the way, from open data, to self-sovereign identity, to financial inclusion. You can keep going down: to decentralized lending, decentralized insurance, decentralized banking. Each and every step along the way to economic identity. When you admit a blockchain tells you that, there's a collection of applications and infrastructure that you need to build.
My life's work is to get to a point where we have the technology to do that. The infrastructure to do that, with principles, and so we'll keep evolving Cardano and we'll keep evolving the space as a whole and the science as a whole until I can wake up and say: each box and that road to economic identity, for all people not just one group, we have a solution for that. I'm going to put those applications on Cardano and success for me is not about us being king of the crypto hill and having a higher market cap than bitcoin or being entrepreneur of the year coindesk's most influential person. It's meaningless noise, success for me is reflecting back at the things that we have accomplished together and recognizing that millions if not billions now live in a system where they all matter, they all have a voice, they all have an equal footing. The Jeff Bezos of the world have the very same experience as the person born in Rwanda and we're not done until that's the case. It's a long road, it's a hard road, but you know what? We're making progress, we have great people in Africa, we have great people in eastern Europe, we have great people in southeast Asia and great partners all along the way. Great people, Latin America, great people in south America, great people here in the United States.
When we talk about economic identity there are millions, if not tens of millions of Americans who don't have it. Same for Canadians, hundreds of thousands, who don't have it. Developed western cultures, it's the greatest blind spot of policy and as we enter into a depression as a result of coronavirus, add millions if not tens of millions more onto that list. Generations are being disenfranchised by this legacy system and we as an ecosystem, we as an entire community are offering a different way forward. Not hyper centralizationn not social credit but a way forward where you own your own money, your own identity, your own data. You're not a victim of surveillance capitalism, you're not a victim of civil asset forfeiture. When you say the wrong things, you get shut out of society. Each and every human being matters and I'm optimistic to believe that when you remind people that they matter they're gonna rise to the occasion. That is the point of my company. In the things that we do each and every day, that's our mission to give the platforms to the world so that those who don't have economic identity can get it and they can keep it and no one can take it from them and they can enjoy an ever increasing growth of standard of living wealth and prosperity.
However you want to measure that this is my goal post, I couldn't care less about the cryptocurrency space. It was a great place to start but the space needs to be reminded why it exists. Bitcoin was given a mandate on the back of the 2008 financial crisis to do something different. It was not given a mandate to go be a new settlement layer for central banks or a new way for the old guard to make more money and banks get bigger and for those who are in control to preserve their power. The whole point of doing something so crazy as to buy a coin that doesn't even exist in real life, that's just a bunch of numbers in the cloud, the whole point of that was so that we as a society could do something different than the way that we'd been doing things before. So, each and every member of the cryptocurrency space needs to remind everyone else from time to time why we're here and where did we come from and where are we going to go.
The beauty of Cardano is we have already achieved for the most part a decentralized brain and that momentum is pushing harder than ever. More and more scientists are waking up, more and more institutions are waking up, getting us there. The code we have, the right approach and I think we have a great competitive offering for 2021 as we go and battle the titans and that's going to be a lot of fun but we know who we are and where we're going and we're in the right places. It's so incredibly encouraging to see the stake pool operators not just be from California or Texas or New York or Canada. To see a lot of stake pool operators from the place that need the most, help everybody does matter and it means a lot to me for the people who are there but it means a lot to everybody to say that we have created an equal platform. It makes the participation of all of us so much more meaningful. We're not just talking to each other, we're talking to the world and by working together on this platform we're lifting the world up and giving people hope. That's the point, there's a lot more to do, we didn't get everything done. You never do you aspire, you work hard, you set a moon, shot and sometimes you can just get to orbit with the first go but you know what? When you build the next rocket you can go to Mars.
Thank you all for being with me, thank you all for being part of this. Today was a damn good day with the announcement of Voltaire. Go to You can participate in that, so end of September is going to be a good day too. There's a lot of good days to come, in between a lot of hard days, doing tasks sometimes entirely forgettable but always necessary to keep the revolution going and the movement going. I cannot wait for 2021, our best days are ahead of us, because of you. You all take care now .
Other things mentioned: (TWIG) (PrisM and not our Prism
Ebb-and-Flow Protocols: A Resolution of the Availability-Finality Dilemma (aka Gasper and ETH2.0 fucker)
submitted by stake_pool to cardano [link] [comments]

2020.09.17 18:04 planetpike75 [Modevent] The Leviathan

8 Lay thine hand upon him, remember the battle, and do no more.
9 Behold, the hope of him is in vain: shall not one be cast down at even the sight of him?
33 Upon earth there is not his like, he who is made without fear.
34 He beholdeth all high things: a king of pride.
-- Job 41:8-9, 33-34
No man or woman is above the law; even those who write their nations' own laws are beholden to forces outside of their control. There is always a bigger fish in the pond, a higher rung on the ladder, a loaded gun against the head. In this case, Sylvia Santana and Xi Jinping were playing a game of Russian roulette with a semi-automatic. The gun? The global financial system, primed and ready to set off a crisis of unprecedented proportions.

Before the Storm

The great collapse of 2030, like all economic catastrophes, had been in the works for some time. As far back as 2020, predictions abounded signaling the impending financial disaster that would happen as a result of the epidemic. While that crash never came, the fundamental belief remained: things had been going far too well for far too long. The market is a self-conscious being; it will react negatively to negative perceptions, and it is in fact possible to speak a crisis into existence. Forecasters, in predicting the future, write a measure of it, and the relentless barrage of accusations that the market was overvalued eventually coalesced into a real and tangible trend. The United States' economic growth slowed to a halt under the Cuomo administration as a series of reforms and political shakeups rocked the leader of the global economy. Further actions by both Cuomo and Cotton through liberal use of the American-controlled SWIFT in attacking enemy economies slowly eroded confidence in the stability of the United States as the global financial leader. The Chinese era of dominance slowed down under the weight of an oil embargo from the Gulf Cooperation Council and the rise of Japan and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations as competitors not only in manufacturing and exports, but in finance and economic leadership. The Russian resurgence was brought to an early end by the full weight of European sanctions and a failed military venture in Belarus, along with the collapse of the Collective Security Treaty Organization and the Eurasian Economic Union. The rise of the European Union was also halted by the weight of sanctions on their own economies, as well as the rise of nationalism in Germany and Romania and the burden of the domestic and economic costs of war in eastern Europe. The Arabian Peninsula was wracked by the Saudi Civil War and the GCC oil embargo, and despite the United Arab Emirates' attempts to salvage the Council, the loss of its largest economy and years of war have taken their toll on the Arab world's place in the financial sector, especially given the less-than-stellar introduction of the united Gulf currency, the Khaleeji.
So what happens when the great financial giants, the pillars upon which the ever-fragile modern economic order stands, come crashing down?

Sylvia Santana and the American Financial Collapse

President Sylvia Santana certainly did not bring about the beginning of the end of American finance -- that was Steve Bannon's doing, as part of his not-so-lovingly-named "meth-head economics" -- but she made sure that she would see his work through. Unemployment had skyrocketed, confidence in the economy was down, and the desertification of American revenues had set the stage for an impending disaster. However, an up-and-coming governor from Michigan had proven that left-wing economic policy could and would work in the United States through the Abolition of Poverty Act. At least, that was the public perception. Behind the scenes, MAPA was rotten to its core. The offering of gainful employment to Michigan residents had, on the surface, brought long-term unemployment to nearly zero. However, this masked the fact that without this legal loophole, unemployment was estimated to be at least 6-7% and could have easily been higher. The spread of Abolition of Poverty Acts throughout the country all yielded similar effects individually, but collectively, they brought about a much, much worse problem: the destruction of state revenues and the need for the federal government to bail these states out when the funds dried up. A harsh request for a national government already low on funds.
However, President Santana's great foresight understood that Abolition of Poverty Acts were simply not sustainable at a state level. She knew that the only way to ensure the continued existence of these policies was to bring them to fruition at a national level, and did so through the Federal Jobs Guarantee. While the FJG was initially successful at bringing Americans out of unemployment and providing semi-meaningful labor where it was needed, it was nearly impossible to sustain. As revenue collection had collapsed under the Cotton administration and the nation was still recovering from this loss, American debt began to skyrocket. Interest is a loaded gun, and the global financial system's finger tightened and tightened over the trigger.
And then Santana had the audacity to threaten the man with the gun.
The first instrument implemented was a series of reforms that offered the United States new tools for capital flight control. Labeling the ultra-wealthy as "malefactors of great wealth," she threatened that anyone who would avoid paying US taxes would be subject to the same sanctions that the United States levies on foreign totalitarian governments. However, most billionaires do not simply stumble into their money -- they are billionaires because they know how to avoid paying taxes and how to defeat the system while playing by its own rules. So when Santana declared war on the billionaire class, their collective response was simple: "Game on."
Capital flight out of the United States nearly doubled overnight as assets were moved all around the world. Individuals and businesses both underwent massive restructuring of capital and assets to evade taxation and subvert the measures implemented to prevent capital flight. While the United States had passed a law stating that capital flight would result in nationalization of assets, the billionaire and CEO class had yet another simple answer. The great financial giants of the United States -- Morgan-Stanley, McKinsey, Deloitte, Wells-Fargo, and more -- along with a number of wealthy individuals and companies brought a common front to President Santana: "We are moving our assets; you can either watch as we do it, or you can nationalize our assets and crash the entire country with it. Your choice." It seems that the President does not have a "correct" option in her array of decisions. She can either back down on a key policy point, or double down and risk destroying the United States financial system as it is known today.
Santana also introduced a Public Bank of the United States, much to the chagrin of the existing banking cartel that existed in the country. While everyday Americans began to move their business to the Public Bank, it was targeted for destruction by private banks and their wealthy owners. What resulted was a financial pissing contest with no clear winner -- the Public Bank was mostly successful in winning over the people, but became a revenue sink as it could not secure large enough equity to stand alone, but the private banks began to suffocate under pressure and failure was looming. It was time to see if a bank too big to fail really was too big to exist. Another hard decision for President Santana. A market where investor confidence was already low took yet another punch to the nose. It couldn't take much more, but President Santana was already winding up for another left hook.
The other major part of Santana's modern alphabet soup of reforms was the Green New Deal, a talking point since 2020 that had taken on a variety of forms and arguments since its inception. Santana's was perhaps the most aggressive serious proposal yet, which called for the forced takeover of every fossil fuel company in the country by the United States government. It went about as well as one could have expected. With the President of the United States openly calling for the death and replacement of an entire industry, the first thing to go was investor confidence. The oil, coal, and natural gas industries of the United States are titans, and billions of dollars have been born from their labor. They are the center of one of the world's most complicated networks of consumers, investors, suppliers, and financiers; it is for this reason that the United States had not yet taken such drastic action against them -- fossil fuels held the United States hostage, and without any major investments or innovations in green technology not only in the United States, but around the world, since 2020, this grip was as strong as ever. As investor confidence plummeted, so too did the stock prices of fossil fuel companies. Millions and millions of dollars evaporated overnight, never to be returned. What was once a stable source of revenue for investors -- and not only for big cats and hedge fund managers, but for retirement plans, education mutual funds, 401(k)s, and more -- was effectively shattered like glass. While the US did eventually acquire the fossil fuel companies -- and for cheaper than expected -- it came at a heavy, heavy cost. The jobs and dollars that were lost were irreplaceable, and the weight of the massive changes that had come to a country run just a few years ago by the farthest right of the right wing were beginning to crush it. The pendulum had swung too violently, and was now thrown off course.
It took ten years longer than expected, but the Great American Financial Crisis had arrived. Reforms to the banking sector, inflation caused by the raising of the minimum wage (which had a noticeably adverse effect on the job market and greatly hampered the efficiency of the Federal Jobs Guarantee), and the piling on of government spending in spite of an extant revenue crisis had finally spoken a crash into existence. The value of the dollar plummeted well below levels seen even in the crisis of 2008. Investment ground to a halt as saving became more and more necessary. The ultra-wealthy rose up in rebellion to reassert their dominance over the American economy. They themselves knew how risky it was -- forecasters lost their minds over the boldness of the move, claiming that the only thing that could have made the situation worse was a direct conflict between the elites and the government, and that was what the United States now had on its hands.
The public reaction to the Great American Financial Crisis was mixed. Many, especially those on the right side of the political aisle, were furious with Santana's hard-left course set for the country; however, even the most pro-business Americans knew that the Mexican standoff between the billionaires and the government could only spell disaster. Public opinion of the ultra-wealthy is at an all-time low as their true colors have shown -- they are willing to sell out American workers and companies to protect their own wealth from taxation. However, despite this, most Americans understand the power that the elite hold over them, and both Republican and corporate Democrat ultimately know that the nation could not survive the economic collapse that would come as a result of mass nationalization of so many essential businesses and services. It ultimately comes down to the same acceptance of inherent ethical problems in the financial system that have existed for years: the system may be malicious, but it does provide jobs and stability. In a word, it costs too much to be the good guy. More radical progressives are eager for President Santana to finalize the destruction of the oppressive financial system that has held the country in its iron grip for far too long, while moderate progressives are mostly undecided, recognizing that this is a turning point for their movement and that one wrong move could end it all.

The Trial of Xi Jinping

On the opposite side of the world, another economic giant was having its own share of troubles. The People's Republic of China had long made a name for itself as the easy partner. The United States had always cared about trivialities like human rights, stability, democracy, and ethics. The People's Republic was a much simpler business partner because it operated on a simple adage: "don't ask questions." China provided hefty investment and loans to developing nations with very few strings attached, and in return, these countries were quite happy to overlook the less-than-stellar ethical developments in the nation of China and its corporations. However, recent years had taken their toll on this idea, and the China of 2020 and the China of 2030 seemed to have entirely different foreign policies.
Some say it began with the failed Chinese intervention in the Gulf, where the United States destroyed the Chinese navy in the Hormuz Strait Crisis during the People's Republic's attempt to end the Gulf Cooperation Council's oil embargo by force. Others say it began with the intervention in Kazakhstan, where in spite of its legitimacy in restoring the original Republic, a series of failures and leaks of Chinese war crimes have led many to question the good intentions of the intervention. However, there are some who believe that the formation of EMSCO itself marked the beginning of the shift in Chinese policy, as the large-scale commitment to foreign military ventures was previously unheard of outside of China. Whatever the cause, the results are indisputable: the growing interventionist tendencies of China have led to a stark decrease in investor confidence and a lowered desire to partner with China. The economy is buckling from the weight of failure after failure in foreign ventures, and rumors abound that the Politburo will take action should Xi not take some time to focus on his own country and wrangle the myriad of problems that now face him, especially with the rise of Japan and ASEAN as legitimate financial and manufacturing competitors in the region. As an export-based middle-income economy, China cannot afford to lose this edge, and drastic action must be taken to maintain it.

The New World Order

The loss of the Chinese edge and the Great American Financial Crisis have shaken the world economy to its core. Investor confidence in both nations is at an all-time low and all around the world, countries and corporations are searching for new partners and new sources of stability. As the value of the dollar depreciates and the value of the yuan becomes somehow more unstable than ever before, countries are searching for new currencies to pin their own to. The chief candidates for the new world currency are the Swiss franc and the Japanese yen, both due to their excellent stability, isolation from financial crisis, and the stellar performance of the Japanese and Swiss economies in recent years. West Africa, following trends as far back as the 2020s, is beginning to take action collectively to align themselves with the franc, while ASEAN and other Asian and east African countries are aligning more with the yen, with most countries preferring to take on a weighted basket than a strict pin. This is a double-edged sword for these two countries -- while it provides them with great prestige and even more influence over the global economy, they now carry the hefty burden of leadership. Furthermore, as demand increases, the values of the yen and the franc are rapidly appreciating, leading to price fluctuations in those countries. However, the die seems to have been cast, and a great burden has been thrust upon their shoulders. As goes Japan, so too will go much of Asia, and should the United States and China not clean up their own acts, the world. But for now, no nation is unfortunately spared the wrath of the Leviathan.
Too Long; Didn't Read and a Meta Commentary
As the great leaders of the global economy, America's and China's suffering is the world's suffering, and the damage they have done to themselves is done to their partners as well. Europe, Africa, Asia, and the Americas all feel the strain of these events as the world enters a global depression. Growth decreases will vary across region and individual nation, but every country in the world -- including Japan and Switzerland -- can expect that their growth rates will decline from this, and that the reactions of the United States and China will be equally instrumental as their own actions in solving this. Economics is not a balanced game, and every entity in the world does unfortunately stand at the mercy of those wealthier than itself, and America and China are at the top of that food chain. However, the world may have some collective bargaining power should they try and push the great powers any one direction.
submitted by planetpike75 to Geosim [link] [comments]

2020.09.17 16:03 autobuzzfeedbot 49 stores you once loved that don't exist anymore

  1. Thom McAn was a chain of shoe stores that had over 1,400 stores at its peak in the 1960s. The chain had closed by 1996, but Thom McAn shoes are still available at Sears and Kmart.
  2. Kinney Shoes opened in 1894. It had 467 stores at its peak, all of which shuttered in 1998.
  3. In 1992, Blockbuster acquired the Sound Warehouse and Music Plus music chains and created Blockbuster Music. The chain was sold to Wherehouse entertainment in 1998 before closing for good.
  4. Warner Bros. Studio Store competed with the Disney store until the company closed all of its locations in 2001.
  5. Zany Brainy stores filed for bankruptcy in 2001, and the educational toy retailer's founder, David Schlessinger, now runs the discount company Five Below.
  6. Ames Department Store had more than 700 locations, but debt and poor sales forced it into bankruptcy twice. In 2002, the remaining Ames stores closed.
  7. Imaginarium was an educational toy store in the 1980s. Stores started closing in the 1990s, and by 2003, its parent company Toys R Us had closed them all.
  8. Hecht's Department Store was founded in 1857. In 2005, the chain was purchased by Macy's and all locations were either turned into Macy's stores or closed.
  9. Federated Department Stores bought Marshall Field's in 2005 and converted the stores to the company's more recognizable flagship brand, Macy's.
  10. Gadzooks was a teen clothing store that was around from 1983 to 2005. It filed for bankruptcy in its final year and was purchased by Forever 21, which then closed all of the stores.
  11. Kaufmann's was a department store that had 44 locations at its peak. In 2006, Macy's retired the name, and the brand disappeared.
  12. Tower Records was one of the largest record stores in the 1990s, but it couldn't keep up with the rise of digital music. All Tower Records stores in the US were closed in 2006.
  13. Media Play was opened by the same company as Sam Goody, serving as a big-box version of the store. It closed for good in 2006.
  14. Discovery Channel stores sold educational books, videos, and gifts, but all 103 standalone stores closed in 2007.
  15. K·B Toys operated over 1,300 stores across all 50 states. The chain announced it would be going out of business in 2008, and by early 2009 all locations were closed.
  16. Sharper Image declared bankruptcy in 2008. But the company still sells merchandise through its website, catalog, and third-party retail partners.
  17. Levitz Furniture was founded way back in 1910. It declared bankruptcy twice — first in 1997, and then in 2005. It closed all of its stores in 2008.
  18. Linens 'n Things had over 500 stores in 2006, but by the end of 2008, they were all closed. The company still does business online.
  19. Mervyn's was a California-based department store founded in 1949 that had almost 200 locations in the western US. In 2008, the company declared bankruptcy and closed all of its stores.
  20. Limited Too, The Limited's children's store, launched in 1987. Its success began dwindling in the early 2000s, and all Limited Too stores were eventually rebranded as Justice by 2008.
  21. Tweeter was an electronics chain that started in 1972, but all of its stores were closed by the end of 2008.
  22. Circuit City had 567 stores in 2008. By 2009, they were all closed.
  23. Steve & Barry's sold inexpensive sportswear for teens. It closed all of its stores in 2009.
  24. Filene's Department Store, a Boston-based department store, went bankrupt in 2009, and there are no more brick-and-mortar locations left.
  25. B. Dalton Books was acquired by Barnes & Noble in 1987, which officially closed the bookstore in January 2010.
  26. Filene's Basement was an off-price store that started in Filene's and eventually grew to 20 locations. Its parent company went bankrupt in 2009, and by 2011 all Filene's Basement stores were closed.
  27. Waldenbooks was founded in 1933 and grew to 250 locations in 15 years. In 1994, the company merged with Borders, and in 2011 all Waldenbooks stores closed when Borders Group liquidated.
  28. Borders Books & Music stores also all closed shortly after the company was forced to liquidate in 2011.
  29. CompUSA started in 1984 as a chain specializing in computer hardware and software. But by 2007, Best Buy and other superstores had taken over, and the last CompUSA closed in 2012.
  30. Sam Goody music stores opened back in the 1940s but suffered from the rise of digital media. Most Sam Goody stores were either shuttered or converted into other brands like FYE by 2012.
  31. Blockbuster, the iconic video rental store, announced in 2013 that it would begin closing most locations. Only a single Blockbuster remains in Bend, Oregon.
  32. A&P was the largest grocery store chain in the US from 1915 to 1975. It filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy in 2010 and again in 2015, closing its stores that year.
  33. Sports Authority had more than 200 locations in the US, but competition drove the company into bankruptcy in 2016, when it closed all its stores and sold its website to competing brand Dick's Sporting Goods.
  34. Sport Chalet, which first opened in 1959, abruptly closed all of its stores in 2016.
  35. Wet Seal, a teen clothing store, filed for bankruptcy in 2015 and closed for good in 2017. Even though its stores are closed, you can still shop online.
  36. Virgin Megastores stopped operating in the US in 2017, mostly because of the rapidly declining CD market.
  37. Radio Shack closed more than 1,000 stores after filing for bankruptcy in March 2017.
  38. The Limited abruptly shut down all 250 of its stores in 2017.
  39. Teavana's 379 locations were closed by its parent company Starbucks in 2018.
  40. All 256 of the Bon-Ton stores were liquidated in 2018. The Bon-Ton stores include its namesake ...
  41. ... Bergner's ...
  42. ... Boston Store ...
  43. ... Elder-Beerman ...
  44. ... and Younkers.
  45. Toys R Us and its subsidiaries closed in 2018. While the Toys R Us store and website came back in 2019, Babies R Us has yet to make a comeback in the US.
  46. LifeWay Christian Resources said it would be closing all its stores in March 2018, but it still sells books, bibles, and church supplies online.
  47. After 123 years of business, Henri Bendel closed all its stores in January 2019.
  48. Dress Barn announced the closing of all 650 of their store locations in May 2019.
  49. Papyrus, a stationary and greeting card retailer, filed for bankruptcy and confirmed it would close all its stores on January 23, 2020, but Papyrus greeting cards are still available at retailers like Target.
Link to article
submitted by autobuzzfeedbot to buzzfeedbot [link] [comments]

2020.09.17 14:34 Dutchforce My Black Belt Introduction

Hi everyone, I got promoted to black belt on 8/17/2020 and wanted to introduce myself. Just wanted to share my story and a few takeaways over the years.
As a product of the 80s, I loved watching movies like Karate Kid, Kickboxer, Rocky, all the Bruce Lee movies, etc. I was also a huge fan of Dragonball Z, Transformers, Power Rangers, etc. Basically everything that involved fighting haha. After getting introduced to Pride and UFC by a friend, I ended up training at a MMA gym in 2008. I trained muay thai and jiu-jitsu there for about 2 years. My main instructor was a really seasoned purple belt and also a judo brown belt. I would get smashed all the time and I remember thinking to myself “hopefully I can make it to purple belt one day and maybe I can get these super powers too”. I won a tournament at blue belt one time and my instructor gave me 3 stripes t once, which I found kind of weird. I had a fun time training there but I decided that I would never pursue MMA. Rather than be jack of all trades, I decided I wanted to just get good at jiu-jitsu (still a work in progress).
I switched gyms to Gracie Barra in 2010/2011 and trained directly under the legendary Draculino and Brandon Mullins. I removed those 3 stripes from my blue belt and started over as a fresh blue belt. Fortunately GB had a lot more variety in training partners and both my instructors are in the lighter weight classes, so that really helped develop my game. I’m 5’8” 155lbs for reference. Received my purple belt (definitely did not feel like I had any kind of super power) and then another GB opened closer to where I live in 2016. This gym would be led by Marcelo “Uirapuru” Azevedo. It was at this time that my wife also tried out jiu-jitsu. We had already been together for 5 years at that time and I asked her if she’d be interested in trying out that thing I do a couple of times a week. She said sure and fell in love with it. I could tell she had the fire in her the moment I saw her roll. She had no clue what she was doing but she fought with everything she had.
I received both my brown belt and my black belt under professor Marcelo. I consider him not only a great instructor but a friend as well. He does a great job of pushing everyone to do their absolute best. He leads by example. He has absolutely nothing left to prove, having competed in MMA back in the dark ages and he has won titles at the biggest stages in jiu-jitsu, yet he will still lead the way and compete alongside his students.
Couple of bullet points:
This turned into a much longer write-up than I anticipated. As a close, here are two pictures on the day I got promoted.
submitted by Dutchforce to bjj [link] [comments]

2020.09.17 13:36 MarcoTalin NJPW Marathon/Retrospective - G1 Climax XXI (2011), Part 2: Finals Day

Previous Post: G1 Climax XXI (2011), Part 1: Block Competition
Next Post: G1 Climax Special 2011 & Destruction 2011
Hello njpw, and welcome to the second part of my G1 Climax XXI retrospective. It's finals day, where we will see the someone come out as the winner of 2011's G1 Climax tournament. We have many contenders with a shot at taking that title. Will our reigning champion Hiroshi Tanahashi take it? Will it be the veteran Yuji Nagata, or the young up-and-comer Tetsuya Naito? Can Togi Makabe climb the mountain one more time? Will our Intercontinental Champion MVP add another accomplishment to his rookie year? Could Satoshi Kojima or Hirooki Goto put themselves back in the title picture with a major victory? Could it be the King of Strong Style Shinsuke Nakamura, or will it be the most dangerous man in the world, Minoru Suzuki?
I guess we'll found out.

G1 Climax XXI, Finals Day (Aug 14, 2011, Ryougoku Kokugikan)

NJPW World Link / NJPW World Link for the full show video
IMG: G1 Climax Logo
Let's sum it up before we go into the matches. First off, La Sombra and Wataru Inoue are off the show, which is a bit of a shame. I would've liked to have seen a La Sombra singles match in NJPW. Looking ahead, there is one in particular that'll be nice to watch, but let's put that aside for now.
We have 6 men in contention in A Block, with Tanahashi at the top with 12 points, and Makabe, Takyama, Nagata, Yano, and Naito all just behind him with 10 points. Meanwhile, over in B Block, 5 men are still alive, with Nakamura, Suzuki, Goto, Kojima, and MVP all at 12 points.
For those still in contention, it's a must win situation. If they lose, they can't win their block. Moreover, every match on this day will feature at least one of these wrestlers, so even though not everyone can win their block, every match will have implications on who makes it to the finals.
However, 2 matches in particular today are of significant importance. A Block has a massive match with Tetsuya Naito facing block leader Hiroshi Tanahashi, in a match where, if Tanahashi wins, he wins the block, no questions asked. B Block, on the other hand, has two of its favorites going at it, with Shinsuke Nakamura facing Minoru Suzuki.
With that out of the way, we have a full show to go over, so let's not waste any time. For the first time, we have a complete show to view on NJPW World, though there are a few individual matches with their own links (I'll provide those as we go on). Let's kick things off with our opening match, Yuji Nagata vs Hideo Saito.

Match 1: G1 Climax Match

Singles Match, G1 Climax, A Block
Yuji Nagata [Seigigun] vs Hideo Saito [Chaos]
We kick off the show with a feud from Dominion. Yuji Nagata faces his former Seigigun stablemate, the former Mitsuhide Hirasawa, now named Hideo Saito.
If you recall, these two had a match at New Japan Soul, but it ended in DQ when Saito failed to break his Carribean Death Grip while Nagata was on the ropes. Now it's round two, and it's in the G1 Climax. Saito is 0-8 so far, while Nagata is in prime position to win the tournament, with wins over Takayama, Naito, and block leader Tanahashi.
However, the ill will between the two has been mounting, so while Saito's ruthlessness has yet to get him a win, his wrath is multiplied in this match by his opponent. Saito attack Nagata in the entranceway before they even enter the arena. He chokes Nagata with his belt, drags him to the ring, ties him to the post, and hits him with the bell. He then waits for Nagata to crawl into the ring, at which point the match finally begins.
It's a really quick match. Nagata does manage to get some offense in, though. He lands a Backdrop, a few quicks, and even locks in the Shirome. However, the opening beatdown proves to pay off for Saito. He is able to reverse the Shirome and lock in his Carribean Death Grip. With Nagata away from the ropes and unable to fight back, his shoulders are pinned to the mat and the referee counts the fall.
Result: Hideo Saito pins Yuji Nagata with a Carribean Death Grip
Rating: 5/10
This match is barely a match, really. The point was for Nagata to be eliminated on the last day in a meaningful way, and to continue the feud with Saito.
Saito continues his attack after the match as well, maintaining the hold even after the bell has rung, and then attacking Fale the same way when he tries to help Nagata. However, it's Nagata who gets the last laugh, because when Saito goes back to him after he's done with Fale, he attempts to lock in the grip again on Nagata. However, Nagata is able to counter this, spraying blue mist all over Saito's face.
Regardless, the results are still the same. Saito scores his first points in the tournament on the last day, and Nagata is eliminated from contention.

Match 2: G1 Climax Match

Singles Match, G1 Climax, A Block
Giant Bernard vs Toru Yano [Chaos]
It's time for another A Block match, this time between Toru Yano and Giant Bernard.
Bernard was eliminated from the tournament just the previous night, which is quite unexpected for someone on top of the block for the first 5 days of competition. That being said, with Nagata out, Yano doesn't have a path to the finals anymore, so this match is just about pride and point totals.
Yano is being his typical self in this match, though without much on the line it doesn't have as much weight as, say, the Tanahashi match did. Still, you get all your shenanigans and such, and I like those shenanigans, so it was still great to me.
Also, this match features, as far as I know, the first instance of Toru Yano doing grievous harm against Hiromu's hair. If you watched this year's New Japan Cup, you got to see the 5-star classic between Hiromu and Yano. In this match, we see the origins of that story. This G1, Yano's been making threats with scissors (carrying over from the MVP feud). In this match, Yano manages to take those scissors to Hiromu's hair. He doesn't take much off, but we'll see the pay-off to this next post.
Result: Giant Bernard pins Toru Yano with the Bernard Driver
Rating: 6/10
Also, with Yano's loss here, Makabe has no chance to be the sole winner of A Block. He does still have one more out in a three-way draw, but that depends on the results of the next match.

Match 3: G1 Climax Match

Singles Match, G1 Climax, A Block
Lance Archer [Suzuki-gun] vs Yoshihiro Takayama [Noah]
Our 3rd A Block match of the evening is the final giant match of the tournament as the Emperor Yoshihiro Takayama faces the American Psycho Lance Archer.
Again, Takayama has no chance to win the block. However, Makabe is watching this match very closely, because if Takayama wins here, Makabe too would have no avenue to win the block either.
The match itself starts of like a typical big hoss fight (tests of strength, non-sold shoulder blocks, etc.). It's a neat spectacle with the men involved, though the match slows down halfway through (after the first man falls down). It's a decent match, and an interesting one in hindsight if you're familiar with the future of Suzuki-gun.
Also, I just want to say Takayama with tights and gloves is a good look for him. Maybe it's not as iconic for him as just the plain black trunks, but I think it looks better.
Result: Lance Archer pins Yoshihiro Takayama with a Dark Days
Rating: 5/10

Match 4: G1 Climax Match

Singles Match, G1 Climax, A Block
Togi Makabe [GBH] vs Yujiro Takahashi [Chaos]
Our penultimate A Block match sees Togi Makabe face Yujiro Takahashi.
As I mentioned earlier, Makabe lost his shot at outright winning the block with Yano's loss. However, with Takayama also losing, Makabe can cause a 3-way tie between him, Naito, and Tanahashi if he wins here and if Naito beats Tanahashi.
Yujiro comes to the ring flanked by his Complete Players cohorts Gedo and Jado. Then Makabe comes down and gets on the turnbuckle to pose for the crowd, but then Yujiro attacks him from behind.
The rest of the match is pretty standard. Makabe gets the upper hand, Gedo and Jado interfere, Yujiro has control, rinse, and repeat. Not much to say here.
Result: Yujiro Takahashi pins Togi Makabe with a Tokyo Pimps
Rating: 5/10
And thus, Togi Makabe is eliminated.

Match 5: G1 Climax Match

NJPW World Link
Singles Match, G1 Climax, A Block
Hiroshi Tanahashi vs Tetsuya Naito
With all the failed attempts to get to 12 points in the past 4 matches, it all comes down to this. The champion, Hiroshi Tanahashi, and the young up-and-comer Tetsuya Naito battle it out. The winner takes A Block and moves onto the finals.
This is a really cool match. Both men know that whoever wins this match is going to the finals, but also that that match will be later tonight. As such, the match is a sprint to see who can get the pinfall with as little effort as possible. It is a showcase of pinning combinations and quick pinfall attempts. It is an amazingly quick match, clocking in at just over 5 minutes. It's truly a sight to behold.
Result: Tetsuya Naito pins Hiroshi Tanahashi with a Polvo de Estrella
Rating: 7/10
And with that, A Block is decided. Both Tanahashi and Naito are at 12 points, but with Naito having beaten Tanahashi, he breaks the tie, and will move on into the finals!

Match 6: G1 Climax Match

Singles Match, G1 Climax, B Block
Hirooki Goto vs Strong Man
With A Block settled, we kick off B Block action with our first B Block match, Hirooki Goto vs Strong Man.
Strong Man won. 0/10.
I'm kidding, I'm kidding. Okay, let's be objective here.
As I mentioned in the last post, Goto is in a tough spot here. His losses to Suzuki and MVP hurt his chances, and his win over Nakamura is hampered by the fact that Nakamura also lost to MVP. That means if Suzuki wins, he's he's out, and even if Nakamura wins, if MVP makes it to 14 as well, he's basically out as well. Thus, even if he beats Strong Man here, he still needs both men to lose their match in order to guarantee victory in his block.
That shouldn't be a problem, though, right? Strong Man is 1-7 in this tournament. It's basically a guaranteed victory. Right?
Ok, look. If you've seen G1 final days before, and if you've been watching the show up to this point, you know how things go. There wasn't anything really wrong with this match. If I had to criticize it, It'd just be that Strong Man didn't really sell his arm much. Apart from that, it was fine.
It's just ... ugh. I have my own personal biases, okay? Whatever. It's fine.
Result: Strong Man pins Hirooki Goto with a Blockbuster
Rating: 4/10
That hurt to type. I'm just gonna pretend this was supposed to be Nakanishi. Also, Blockbuster is the name of Strong Man's finisher where he puts you into the torture rack before falling backwards. He didn't do a forward flipping neckbreaker.

Match 7: G1 Climax Match

Singles Match, G1 Climax, B Block
MVP vs Karl Anderson
Our next B Block match is an all-gaijin match, with MVP taking on Bad Intentions' Karl Anderson.
Before the Goto match, MVP was tied with Kojima in having the 2nd best chance of winning the block. As long as Nakamura won, he had little to worry about. However, with Goto losing, he lost his chip in the tie-breaking decisions. Aside from a three-way tie situation, his only path to victory relies on Nakamura winning and Kojima losing. Again, though, this all hinges on him winning his own match.
Speaking of the match, it was a solid match. It's nice to see good back and forth between the two foreigners, and they showed each other proper respect before and after the match. Can't say anything bad about the match.
Result: Karl Anderson pins MVP with a Gun Stun
Rating: 6/10

Match 8: G1 Climax Match

NJPW World Link
Singles Match, G1 Climax, B Block
Satoshi Kojima vs Hiroyoshi Tenzan
In our penultimate B Block match, we see two former tag team partners clash as Satoshi Kojima faces Hiroyoshi Tenzan.
As I mentioned with MVP, Kojima was in the middle of the pack when it came to chances of winning B Block. With Kojima, Goto, and MVP in a three-way-1-win-1-loss situation, he needed either MVP to win or Goto to lose. Luckily for him, Goto did lose, so all he needs now to clinch victory is for him to win and for Suzuki to beat Nakamura. However, to do so, he needs to go through his old tag team partner Tenzan, and though Tenzan hasn't had a great showing in the G1 so far, it doesn't guarantee everything, and Tenzan might just be the guy to block Kojima's path.
For those of you unfamiliar with the two's past, TenCozy was a record-breaking tag team in the early 2000's, winning the IWGP Tag Team Championship twice, the G1 Tag League twice in 2001 and 2008, and even winning AJPW's Real World Tag League twice in 2006 and 2008. While they've been on and off partners over the years between promotion changes and injuries, this is the first proper meeting between the two since Kojima's return to NJPW in 2010.
Boy, I do love a match with history and context. Like, overall, it was another solid match, but with the history and the crowd, it helps make the match a lot more enjoyable.
Result: Hiroyoshi Tenzan pins Satoshi Kojima with an Original TTD
Rating: 7/10

Match 9: G1 Climax Match

NJPW World Link
Singles Match, G1 Climax, B Block
Shinsuke Nakamura [Chaos] vs Minoru Suzuki [Suzuki-gun]
Finally, we arrive at the last block match. B-Block comes to a head here as faction leaders collide, as Chaos' Shinsuke Nakamura takes on Suzuki-gun's Minoru Suzuki.
These two were block leaders almost since the start of the tournament, having the highest point totals in their block since day 2. However, going into this final day, Suzuki had better odds of winning than Nakamura. Among the 5 men in contention, Suzuki had only lost to one of them (Kojima), while Nakamura lost to two (Goto & MVP). However, as the night went on, Nakamura started becoming more secure with Goto and MVP dropping out of the running, ensuring his taking of the block if he beats Suzuki. However, with Kojima following in falling out of the running, Suzuki is in the same position. Thus, we have this match. Whoever wins takes B-Block.
This match is the exact opposite of the Tanahashi-Naito block final match. It's slow and methodical at first with neither man getting a clear advantage, and then it turns brutal and hard-hitting, as one would expect in a match between these two. Hard strikes and brutal submissions aplenty, plus some early interference from Taichi that Nakamura wonderfully takes care of.
In the end, it's a frantic race to finish things off with counter after counter until Nakamura hits a Bomaye out of nowhere to get the pin and secure the block.
Result: Shinsuke Nakamura pins Minoru Suzuki with a Bomaye
Rating: 8/10
And with that, our G1 finals is set, with Tetsuya Naito facing Shinsuke Nakamura. The winner will be the G1 Climax XXI winner. Naito gets to face the leader of the faction that discarded him.
Before that, though, we have an intermission and one more match before we get to the finals, one outside of the G1 tournament, to give our finalists, particularly Nakamura, a break before facing each other. It's a title match, the IWGP Jr. Tag Team Championships to be exact.

Match 10: IWGP Jr. Heavyweight Tag Team Championship

NJPW World Link
Tag Team Match, IWGP Jr. Heavyweight Tag Team Championship
Apollo 55 (Prince Devitt & Ryusuke Taguchi) (c) vs Golden☆Lovers (Kota Ibushi & Kenny Omega) [DDT]
Our semi-main event sees Golden Lovers once again taking on Apollo 55 for the IWGP Jr. Heavyweight Tag Team Championships.
These two teams have been fighting for months now, with the last two Jr. Tag title changes coming between these two teams, and with Ibushi as the current IWGP Jr. Heavyweight Champion, having won his last two title matches against Devitt and Taguchi, I guess he's not satisfied with taking just one of their titles, wanting to be a double IWGP Jr. champion himself. However, tag team wrestling is a whole other beast from singles wrestling.
These two put on a clinic of Jr. Tag wrestling, starting at a high gear and never letting up. It's an excellent match to cap of their trilogy.
Result: Prince Devitt pins Kenny Omega with a Black Sunday V2 - Champions Retain, 6th Defense
Rating: 8/10

Match 11: G1 Climax Finals Match

NJPW World Link
Singles Match, G1 Climax, Finals
Tetsuya Naito vs Shinsuke Nakamura [Chaos]
It all comes down to this. the finals of a frantic G1 Climax. Two prodigies, the best of the New Japan Dojo, The Stardust Genius vs the King of Strong Style. It's Tetsuya Naito vs Shinsuke Nakamura.
Despite being the fresher of the two, Naito struggles with Nakamura early on, allowing Nakamura to dictate the pace and show off his brashness (which he wasn't able to do much in the intense match he had with Suzuki). However, Naito is quick and smart, so when he finds an opening in attacking Nakamura's knee, he takes full advantage.
The match really kicks into third gear after a second rope reverse exploder suplex, and the match carries that energy all the way to the end, with pin attempt after pin attempt, until finally, a winner is crowned.
Result: Shinsuke Nakamura pins Tetsuya Naito with a Bomaye
Rating: 9/10
Shinsuke Nakamura wins his first G1 Climax. Tetsuya Naito is seen crying as he's carried to the back, obviously disappointed in himself in getting so far only to come up short. Nakamura, on the other hand is left to celebrate in the ring, presented with flowers and trophies, as well as the G1 Climax flag. He gives a heartfelt speech about Pro-Wrestling, and he revels in the cheers of the crowd and the shower of golden confetti. Congratulations, Shinsuke Nakamura.
And there you have it. We close our G1 Climax tournament with an excellent match and a warm celebration. However, with an ending comes a beginning, and we must look ahead to the future with the results of this tournament. With this win, Nakamura is surely looking ahead to an IWGP Heavyweight title challenge, but he's not the only one. Tanahashi suffered 3 losses in this tournament: Yuji Nagata, Toru Yano, and Tetsuya Naito. Traditionally, these wins mean that these men will have their own title opportunities as well. For Nagata, it'll be a second chance this year, but for Naito and Yano, it will be the first time in their careers that they'll have such an opportunity.
Not to mention the other feuds coming out of this. Kojima and Tenzan had a momentous clash coming out of this tournament, and they'll soon clash again. Also, let's not forget MVP has a challenger to his Intercontinental Championship waiting in the wings in Masato Tanaka. All these and much more as we start heading into the final third of 2011.
In the meantime, though, I hope this makes everyone reading this excited for this year's G1 Climax, and has them looking forward to the possibilities that may come. It's 9 years later, and Naito has gone from a finalist coming just short of winning the tournament to being the champion going into the whole thing. So let's sit back and enjoy the 30th G1 Climax tour in the present. When it's done, our next stop on this journey will include the G1 Climax Special tour, a tour dealing with some of the fallout from the G1 Climax, as well as the next major show Destruction 2011.
Until then, thanks for reading! See you next post.
Previous Post: G1 Climax XXI (2011), Part 1: Block Competition
Next Post: G1 Climax Special 2011 & Destruction 2011
submitted by MarcoTalin to njpw [link] [comments]


I've seen various posts lately with pictures of Chavez Sr. with famous narcos. Here are some interesting tid-bits about Julio Cesar Chavez Sr. and his associations to organized crime.
He was friends/compadre to Amado Carrillo Fuentes "The Lord of the Skies" and Juan José Esparragoza Moreno "El Azul" - Juarez Cartel leader and advisor. I’m sure we’ve all seen those pictures.
His promoter before Don King, Angel Gutierrez was gunned down in Cancun, Mexico. Supposedly, a drug related adjustment of accounts. Angel Gutierrez had previously been arrested for drug trafficking in Tijuana and then California. He was believed to be a right hand man to Rafael Caro Quintero, Mexico's most famous drug lord of the 80's. One of (3) Sinaloans that founded the Guadalajara Cartel.
In this link, (no longer working) they talk about Chavez' ex-promoter, Angel Gutierrez. They add that besides Chavez, he managed another 25 fighters. He used boxing as a way to wash drug trafficking money. After his arrest, Chavez visited him in prison. For motives never cleared, Angel was released, and ultimately killed.
The article also mentioned that Chavez' younger brother and his wive's relative were tortured by judicial police agents for criminal association. Chavez called the state governor of Sinaloa and everything was resolved.
He was also linked to Hector "El Guero" Palma, Sinaloa Cartel founder along with "Chapo" Guzman. After Palma’s wife and kids were killed, his vengeance began by kidnapping and killing 3 Venezuelans. A famous human rights activist, Norma Corona, was investigating these deaths. “Guero” Palma ordered she be killed, her body was found outside of Chavez' apartment in Culiacan, but Chavez claimed to not have owned the property anymore when it happened, but drug trafficker Miguel Angel Rico Urrea assured that the killer of Norma Corona, Santos Arellano Bazán, was hiding in one of Chavez properties.
Mario Alberto González Treviño, Federal Judicial Police commander was Chavez's friend. Chavez even gave him one of his championship belts. The commander was imprisoned for being the intellectual author of Norma Corona's killing. Commander Mario Alberto González Treviño covered up a lot of "Guero's" criminal activities.
He was compadre to Francisco Rafael Arellano Felix, founder of the Tijuana Cartel. He carried Chavez' belt to the ring when he fought Camacho and he also worked Chavez' corner when he fought Haugen in Mexico City.
Don King gave a Rolls Royce to Chavez after a fight he won, Chavez gave that car to Francisco Rafael. They were super close, always partied together. Chavez would call Francisco a f*g, and Francisco would respond saying that Chavez had a small d*ck. They once traveled to France together. Francisco would joke that Chavez went to consult a doctor, in hopes of getting his d*ck resized.
Francisco owned in Mazatlan, Sinaloa what was known as the most modern and luxurious nightclub in all of Latin America. He had a special room just for Chavez, so no one would bother him, where Chavez would get fcuked up on coke. They even held boxing events at this nightclub.
In 1993, Francisco Rafael was arrested at one of Chavez' houses.
Francisco Rafael Arellano Felix was released in 2008. Francisco has attended weigh-ins for Chavez' sons under a different name. Omar Chavez was present at the party in 2013 when a clown shot and killed Francisco Rafael.
A few months after Chavez beat Giovanni Parisi in 1996, he was out with his friends Jesus Sanchez Angulo and his compadre and boxer and his sparring partner, Jesus "El Bebe" Gallardo, 25 wins, 3 losses 23 knockouts. They met up at Holiday Inn in the state of Mexico. In middle of their dinner, Chavez got up to use the men's room when Tijuana Cartel hired gunmen fired against Angulo and Gallardo, killing both. Ramon Arellano himself had hired them to kill Gallardo, over Gallardo snitching that a load of marijuana he got caught transporting belong the Arellano Brothers. Chavez, later, had a baby girl with Gallardo's widow.
Julio Cesar Chavez Jr.'s wife/girlfriend has a daughter that's "Chapo" Guzman’s, Sinaloa Cartel leader's granddaughter.
Not to long ago, Chavez Sr. was accused of being a money launderer and defended himself.
Chavez: You think the United States would give me a work visa if I was a money launderer? Or if I had links with drug traffickers? The United States knows I'm friends with all of them, yes, effectively, I know all of them, I know them personally, because they've called me, and I've had to go them, because if I don't, you know what will happen...
Francisco Arellano was good friend of mine, everyone knows that, all traffickers have been good friends of mine, I've known them, why? Because they love boxing too, I'm their idol too, they too have a heart, bad or good, but with me, they always comported themselves good, all of them, friends and enemies, I have a good rapport with everyone ...
If I hadn't been the person I was, if I negated a picture or what not, they would have killed me, why am I going to be against them? They'll kill me, kill my kids...
One thing is knowing them and another thing is me being involved with them...
I have a mic on my hand every Saturday, I can say whatever I want, thank God, I'm the only one on Azteca TV that can say whatever he wants, and on ESPN too in the United States, well of course I tend to say some dumb **** I'm not going to say I don't.
I want to meet the reporter that's accusing me, and have him show proof of any wrongdoing from my part, and if I did something wrong, judge me, sentence me, but if not, then put him in jail.
Thank God I'm a decent person, and everything I've made I've earned it working hard on top of the ring and you guys know that, I've always risked my life on top of the ring, you think I had the need to be involved with stupid ****? Please, I used to make a lot of money.
Right now what concerns me is being good health wise, morally wise, and overall, to be good in regards to my addictions and help other people the best I can.
submitted by rafacaro_1 to narcos [link] [comments]

2020.09.15 19:07 JasontheHappyHusky Inside the Mind of an Anti-Vax Parent

Who is the typical "anti-vax" parent? What motivates them to disregard the advice of physicians, scientists, and public health officials? What do they value? Whom do they see as their peers? And how has their thinking gone astray? We have looked at cognitive effects, such as biased assimilation, the credibility heuristic, selective perception, the Dunning-Kruger effect, and backfire effects. We have also looked at how the availability of misinformation can lead people astray. We have examined at length the arguments made by major figures in the anti-vaccine movement, such as Andrew Wakefield, Robert F. Kennedy Jr., Robert Sears, and the Geiers. We have examined the demographics and religious beliefs of anti-vaccine activists and their historical predecessors. What does this all add up to? Let's paint a portrait of typical anti-vaccine parents, based on what we've learned them.
This exercise isn't intended to set up straw men that will be easy for us to knock down, but rather to give us a concrete image of those to whom we can direct messaging. Anti-vaccine parents are deeply concerned with being good parents. They are college educated and usually members of the middle class. They have read multiple parenting books and perhaps belong to parenting groups in their neighborhood or online. They have made decisions, in conjunction with discussions with their peers, about what kinds of parents to be. Breast or bottle feed? Public or private school? They may see themselves as "crunchy" parents, who are interested in "attachment" or "natural" parenting.
submitted by JasontheHappyHusky to atlanticdiscussions [link] [comments]

2020.09.15 09:33 CoperMcCopington The TRUTH About JBW - Why White SMV Is Highest

The TRUE Definition of JBW

I've been seeing a lot of push-back and hate against JBW. First of all - something has to be understood. JBW has evolved from it's literal meaning of "just be white" to get any girl (which was NEVER accurate nor what I believe anyone intended it to theorize) to mean more something along the lines of "just be white" to get some girls, and for others it's a huge looks/status halo, and at the least it's not a drawback like some races are. THAT is the most accurate representation of JBW.

Why Does JBW Receive So Much Push-Back?

Now, we have to understand that there is a lot of push-back against this theory BECAUSE people think they can influence how the world sees their race based off of TV, movie, and most importantly (in the case of incels on Reddit/Twittewebforums), social media. There's a reason why /JustBeWhite got banned while several subreddits of other races of men are still up. There's a reason why many white male x ethnic female porn subreddits have also gone down. You may think this is approaching conspiracy theory level, but seriously, just google search "aznidentity" and see the kind of organized shit these people get up to. Guaranteed, there will be MANY, in particular, Asian incels that reply to this post - I want you to click their profile and see what kind of coping subreddits they visit - all sorts of shit about Asians cucking whites (LOL), BBC shit, anything to denigrate who they deem the enemy.
I used to find this particularly annoying. However, after sitting back and actually thinking about it - it's a genuine non-factor. These people are not making any influence or make any head-way into the perceived SMV of their race. And I'm going to list all the research papers and statistics that prove why.

SMV, Not Just PSL

This post will be going over white male SMV - not just PSL. Reminder that SMV stands for Sexual Market Value. SMV is determined by a myriad of things, including looks/facial structure, height, frame, voice, and social status.

Caucasoid Skulls

The FIRST and most important thing to realize when it comes to whites, who are part of the "caucasoid" skull structure that INCLUDES Arabs and Jews (so yes, if you are Arab/Middle Eastern/North African then you benefit from this part of this post as well - and this is also why JBW isn't as pronounced in these areas, as everyone here is already caucasoid), is that the caucasoid skull is objectively the most attractive one when it comes to men.
First, let's read description of a caucasoid skull:
"Caucasoid traits were recognised as: thin nasal aperture ("nose narrow"), a small mouth, facial angle of 100°–90°, and orthognathism, [...] such as prominent supraorbital ridges and a sharp nasal sill."
I will highlight the important details in each of these descriptions.
Let's look at mongoloid skulls:
"The Mongoloid skull shows a round head shape with a medium-width nasal aperture, rounded orbital margins, massive cheekbones, weak or absent canine fossae, moderate prognathism, absent brow ridges, simple cranial sutures, prominent zygomatic bones, broad, flat, tented nasal root, short nasal spine, shovel-shaped upper incisor teeth (scooped out behind), straight nasal profile, moderately wide palate shape, arched sagittal contour, wide facial breadth and a flatter face."
And Negroids:
"skulls as having a broad and round nasal cavity; no dam or nasal sill; Quonset hut-shaped nasal bones; notable facial projection in the jaw and mouth area (prognathism); a rectangular-shaped palate; a square or rectangular eye orbit shape; a large interorbital distance; a more undulating supraorbital ridge; and large teeth." -
First: Brow ridges.
Why is this relevant for male attractiveness?
We all know that a brow ridge is male-dimorphic trait. We also know that it is a sign of both pubertal AND prenatal testosterone levels - and that THIS IS REFLECTED IN THE FACE. We also know that "facial masculinity has been proposed as an honest signal of genetic quality".
So, right off the bat, something that is almost ubiquitous in caucasoid skulls - a prominent brow ridge - is something that is considered attractive and sexually dimorphic - aka masculine - is found lesser so in negroid skulls and almost nonexistent in Asians - ALMOST non-existent - because the top Asian male models are the ones that actually have brow ridges: Godfrey Gao (also note his facial hair),Brian Tee, and so on. Now, on the other hand, look at a K-Pop model and you understand why so many communities, Asian and non-Asian, bash them as feminine in apperance - they don't fit in the the ideals of maculinity ANYWHERE in the world (and Asian incels will cope by saying it's WESTERN masculinity ideals - no - it's scientifically backed perceived notions of facial masculinization, as Asians CAN have prominent brow ridges, as I showed, and they are perceived as more attractive, it's just EXTREMELY uncommon).
The presence of a brow ridge is also the only way to have bone-given hunter eyes - meaning ACTUAL hunter eyes in Asians is almost non existent, (note that I said almost, again), because it would require them to have both a lack of monolids AND a brow ridge - and at that point I'd suspect that they may not be completely Eastern Asian.
Also, remember that the brow ridge is mostly determined by how deep-set the eyes are, especially in caucasoids.
Next is prognathism - something that is most common in the negroid skull, and semi-common in the mongoloid skull, and least common in the caucasoid skull.
We all know that facial attractiveness is about harmony and the over-development of the lower jaw would never be considered attractive. As I said before, skull shapes can vary - and I'm sure someone will point out the Habsburg bloodline saying that "it's a white trait too!11!!1!!"
Too bad data shows that the genes for prognathism show up in about 1% of Caucasians, but 15% of Asians.
I cannot find data for its prevalence amongst negroid skulls - but I'd assume it's even higher.
Orthognathism was highlighted as a trait of caucasoid skulls, as I highlighted earlier. This entails the straightness of the jaw and even implies the gonial angle is straighter - and thus more square.
Next: Maxilla/forward growth.
Highlighted were the parts that showed how prevalent a flat face is in Mongoloid faces. It's not as prevalent in Negroids and Caucasoids. We all know by now that maxillas that are flat are unattractive. Here is a study proving that. You can see the results in table 2.
More on Caucasoid vs Mongoloid vs Negroid Skulls
Not all of what Mongoloid skulls have is bad - but what's bad is VERY bad. Huge failos that caucasoid skulls just don't have. The worst thing about caucasoid skulls is the smaller mouths and even smaller lips. Mongoloid and negroid skulls both lack in nasal bridge, which is a masculine trait. Thick nasal bases/nostrils are also a masculine trait - caucasoids and mongoloid skulls typically lack this, but it is frequently found in negroid skulls. Mongoloid male noses retain neoteny and lack dimorphism. Mongoloid faces have smaller midfaces on average, which is definitely a plus - but it's because they also have shorter mandibles, which is a negative. This means, yet again, less forward growth, in particular with chin project (recessed chins is slightly more common in Asians, though square jaws are slightly more common). The upper and lower lips were more protrusive in Chinese as well - breaking facial harmony. The same study found that Caucasoid faces had more convex profiles - signalling, yet again, improved forward growth. Mongoloid faces frequently have prominent cheek bones (as cited in the Mongoloid skull section) - but these are not cheek bones that create the smooth lines and hollowed cheeks that are necessary for utmost dimorphism and attractiveness. These are prominent, lower, rounded cheek bones - what's necessary for attractiveness is high/sharp cheekbones and thin cheeks.
Overall, as has been said, there are exceptions found in skull types and formations among the different races. These are all going off means, off of averages. Don't forget that the scientists who developed this classing system could correctly identify where a person was born with a 95% accuracy rating just by looking at their skulls. Skulls DO vary greatly among different races, and they do have different features, some good, and some bad. However, looking at the data, you can see that physical beauty heavily prefers the caucasoid skull.


The top 10 tallest countries in the world are all... white. This is where non-white caucasoids fall behjind. Note that these studies for these heights include ALL men of ALL ages - even including immigrants and refugees from nutrient starved poverty countries. Comparing the average height of white men to any other country is ludicrous - they're just that much taller. The only country that can compete in Asia is South Korea - and that's cherrypicking. Not to mention the studies for male height in South Korea only include those of military age men - wherein, as I said before, that list of top 10 countries includes ALL male height, regardless of age. And it's known that each new generation of men is taller than the last.
There is a height halo among blacks due to basketball, obviously, but the reality is that the average African's height is very low, not even coming close to European standards. However, there are some small tribes that are tall (like the Dinka Sudanese tribe, for instance) - but the reality is that the average height for this tribe is only 5'9" with some EXTREME outliers. Based off my observations, African DNA has something that allows for higher rates of outliers - meaning the tall are very tall, but everyone else is actually pretty short - while European DNA makes everyone, on average, pretty damn tall.
As for frame - whites have been found to have the larger upper bodies than blacks while blacks have longer legs and pelvic regions. Larger upper body is a sign of more testosterone, both pubertal and prenatal. It's a sign of sexual dimorphism as well. Asian males were found to have longer torsos than whites of the same height, but significantly smaller chests and bideltoids than whites. Note that this study used French and Spaniards for Europeans, so I'd assume the results would be even greater in white favor if they used NW Europeans or even NE Europeans. Also, as a side note, this study also proved that white women were more curvy (better hip to waist ratios) than asian women.

Social Status

White social status is obvious. Europeans have controlled, in some way or another, every country on the planet. No other race can say that. You could say that Thailand and Japan both were never "technically" colonized by whites - but Japan doesn't even have a military since WW2 and everyone knows that they're basically a US military base as a whole, and as for Thailand - well, their national beverage is white male sperm - that's a given.
A lot of people cope with white social status by going on about white cucks and so on. Normies have no idea what this shit is about. Normies in NON-WESTERN countries ESPECIALLY have no idea what this is about. Furthermore, the prevalence and pushing for of white cuckoldry, I've noticed, is largely done by ethnics and Asian men. I know a lot of people like to pretend that it's white dudes who are into this fetish - but it's really not. I've gotten into disagreements with JBA (just be Asian) copers on here and they always end up linking me their favorite cuck porn sites. It's pathetic, lmao. No statistical data on this, just something I've noticed. Even if it is largely consumed by whites, it doesn't effect white male social value nearly the same level that all the white male models, white male hollywood actors, and so on positively influence white male SMV.
Not to mention wealth, which is largely owned by caucasoids, then mongoloids, and least of all negroids. This obviously plays a role in partner selection. Whites own a lot of wealth, but the other 2 members of caucasoids obviously own a lot too.

The Overall Halo of Being White

All of this adds up to the overall halo of being white. It's not that being white can get you any girl - it's that being white is a huge looks halo, a sexual market value halo, and so on. It's just an added benefit. The extent of its benefit also depends on where you are in the world. China, Taiwan, Vietnam, Philippines, Japan, Indonesia, Myanmar, and other parts of East and South East Asia would give, lets say, 2.5 points on the ten scale. Some of these just being white is literally enough, but not all, like Japan or Taiwan. Then let's say, Korea, Colombia, Brazil, Morocco, and Mongolia. Being white is a huge plus, but not usually enough alone to get a girl. Let's say it adds 1.5 points. Get the idea? Obviously not set in stone.
Now, understand something here. An ethnic chad will outslay a white basement dwelling incel, obviously. Especially if that "ethnic chad" isn't actually ethnic, but just a brown caucasoid. Brown caucasoids are the only real group close to white caucasoids in terms of SMV, but they miss out on light eyes and the halo/high class look of white skin and height.
What does this mean for white incels? Some countries you can net a girl just by being white. Some will cope and say these are low class countries - but the reality is that there are some seriously hot women in countries where just being white is literally enough. For other countries, some looksmaxxing may be in order to be successful there - or maybe you just won't be successful at all because you can't meet the threshold to slay there.

Other Racial Groups' SMV

Beyond whites, which get an SMV boost everywhere, what kind of boost you get depends on what your ethnicity is. For some groups, it's boosted in certain countries, for others, it's lowered in certain countries.
However, looking at averages, this is how I'd put the list:
  1. Whites (including Hispanic whites)
  2. Arab/Persian Caucasoids (MENA, Iran, parts of Pakistan/India (VERY SELECTIVE, and probably not you if you're Indian), etc)
  3. Non-Northern Caucasoid Africans
  4. Negroid Africans (These two are really hard, because they both have advantages)
  5. East Asian Mongoloids
  6. Non-white Hispanics
  7. South East Asian Mongoloids
  8. South Indians
I didn't include native/aboriginals because of how mixed these groups have become with their white colonizers.

End Note

Overall, you can see the impact of race on the global sexual market place. You cannot deny that a global sexual market place exists, and naturally there would be a race on top of it. This is not to say that whites are superior, or anything like that - just that, by existence of a global sexual marketplace, there would have to be a race that sits on top - and it just so happens to fall on whites.
There is more to be said about this, but I am running out of space and time. Maybe I'll continue more about Caucasoid vs Negroid vs Mongoloid skulls later on down the road. However, my next post will be about the TRUTH behind COLORING - and why light features are a HUGE looks halo, especially when combined with dark features in certain ways (light eyes/skin with dark haibrows/lashes, etc).
Denying white halo is complete and utter cope.
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